DQ 2 Discuss how health care delivery systems work collaboratively to address global health concerns and some of the stakeholders that work on these issues.
When looking at global issues, poor living conditions, dirty water, unsanitary conditions, and not cooking food properly is still an issue. Even in parts of the world where we have access to clean drinking water, sanitary conditions, food is mostly cooked completely through, there are still going to be foodborne illnesses that arise and can spread faster than a lot of other diseases. “Foodborne illness impacts global health, with over 200 diseases that have a direct link to eating food contaminated with bacteria, viruses, parasites or chemical substances. Each Year, 600 million people worldwide get sick from foodborne infections leading to 420,000 deaths, according to the World Health Organization” (Garcia, 2022). I wanted to bring this topic to light due to Campylobacter bacteria which is also referred to as stomach flu or gastroenteritis. Foodborne illness starts when someone ingests these bacteria which causes diarrhea along with other symptoms.
In a rare case, this campylobacter can cause Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). “GBS happens when a person’s own immune system harms their body’s nerves causing muscle weakness and sometimes paralysis” (“Center for Disease”, 2022). Although GBS can be caused by other factors, such as vaccinations, viral infections, or respiratory illness, a neurologist at my place of work has only seen cases that involved campylobacter. I currently have a patient who had food poisoning which led to multiple diarrheal episodes and this bacteria in their body. The onset of GSB symptoms did not start until a week after the diarrheal episodes had stopped.
The patient quickly felt weakness in lower extremities which spread to upper extremities, within two days, they could no longer walk and brought in, within 24 hours diagnosis with GSB and went into respiratory failure, was trached and put on a ventilator due to full body paralysis. This patient has a good prognosis, has movement back in neck and very limited shoulder movement but tolerating vent weaning and all the therapies that come with it, currently at 3-month post diagnosis. Patient has a long road ahead, months to years until they are back to prior diagnosis, even then 70% get to a full recovery.
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Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, June 27). Guillain-Barré syndrome. Retrieved September 6, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/campylobacter/guillain-barre.html
Garcia, J. (2022, June 7). World Food Safety Day Spotlights Global Health Threat. USDA. Retrieved September 6, 2022, from https://www.usda.gov/media/blog/2022/06/07/world-food-safety-day-spotlights-global-health-threat#:~:text=Foodborne%20illness%20impacts%20global%20health,to%20the%20World%20Health%20Organization.
Hello Abigail, while talking about unhealth diet as issue that can affect those at risk. Malnutrition is certainly detrimental to health
and well-being. Malnutrition develops from the quality as well as the quantity of a diet. Diets associated with deaths have findings for high intake of sodium, processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), along with findings for low intake of nuts, seeds, omega-3 fats from seafood, fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. More recently, it has been found that a sizable portion of deaths because of heart disease, stroke, or type 2 diabetes in the United States correlate with suboptimal diets (Micha et al., 2017). Suboptimal diets are the target of studies for potential benefits of policy changes regarding fruit, vegetable, and SSB consumption in order to reduce the burden of disease (Pearson-Stuttard et al., 2017).
Micha, R., Peñalvo, J. L., Cudhea, F., Imamura, F., Rehm, C. D., & Mozaffarian, D. (2017). Association between dietary factors and mortality from heart disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in the United States. JAMA, 317(9), 912-924. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.0947
Pearson-Stuttard, J., Bandosz, P., Rehm, C. D., Penalvo, J., Whitsel, L., Gaziano, T., …& Capewell, S. (2017). Reducing U.S. cardiovascular disease burden and disparities through national and targeted dietary policies: A modelling study. PLoS Med 14(6). doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002311
Hello Abigail, good information on ischemic heart disease related to unhealthy lifestyle choices and ways to prevent the disease. Ischemic heart disease is a noncommunicable diseases being the number one cause of deaths. Nurses are involved in health prevention with educating people on primary, secondary, and tertiary preventions. Primary prevention is education on ways to prevent diseases from occurring such as personal hygiene. Secondary prevention is about early screening and treating health issues. Tertiary prevention is continuing education to prevent further health issues from occurring (Green, 2018).
Green, S., (2018). Epidemiology and Global Health. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/2
Sep 5, 2022, 7:33 PM
The health care system spans all countries of the globe and, while each country organizes the delivery of care differently, there are health concerns that all countries face. The health threats include disease outbreaks, malnutrition, bioterrorism, harmful environment or climate, and any emerging disease, epidemic, endemic, or pandemic. Global health security is defined as proactive and reactive activities that reduce vulnerability of populations to health threats regionally and internationally (World Health Organization [WHO], 2016).
Challenges to the SDGs are factors that weaken global health security, such as war or emerging disease. Challenges that weaken health security can differ from country to country, but the localized issue can become a global concern. For example, the Zika virus result in the WHO declaring emergencies to global health and shifting from infrastructure building to shoring up against a new vulnerability (Rao, 2017). Health facilities are shut down or may no longer be structurally sound in war-torn regions or sites of natural disasters. Supplies are interrupted or inadequate because of the strains of infectious disease, epidemic, or war as aid workers are evacuated. Mental health suffers with the stress of weakened health security, further contributing to the risk factors for illness. Other countries attempt to mitigate the damage by sending supplies, rebuilding the infrastructure, caring for migrants, and setting up quarantines. The assistance of the other countries helps reduce the vulnerability of the population to illness and works to halt spread of health risks across international borders.
Research proceeds with analytic study, hypothesis developments, and testing. Lastly, investigators work to control the disease through the best evidence-based methods available for the specific illness to prevent further occurrence or spread. The investigators then communicate the successful findings of prevention to local health professionals, the public, and other leaders so that they are informed and can participate in prevention and control measures. Public health surveillance is an ongoing process with teams ready to investigate and intervene for clusters of disease occurrence along with the larger endemic, epidemic, and pandemic disease outbreaks. National and international cooperation creates progress to reaching substantive goals for the reduction of health disparities and disease, enhancing health for all. The CDC, WHO, and other epidemiological researchers seek to prevent, reduce, or eliminate health conditions threatening the public’s health (Green, 2018).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016b). Global health – CDC and the Global health security agenda: The global health security agenda. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/security/ghsagenda.htm
Green, S.Z. (2018). Epidemiology and Global Health. Community & Public Health: The Future of Health Care, Ch.2. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/2
Rao, K. S. (2017). Challenging times for public health towards attaining Sustainable Development Goals. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 42(2), 65-68. doi:10.4103/0970-0218.205210
World Health Organization. (2016). The global guardian of public health. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/about/what-we-do/global-guardian-of-public-health.pdf?ua=1