NRS 433 Topic 4 DQ 2
DQ 2 :Describe the levels of evidence and provide an example of the type of practice change that could result from each.
The re-post is to include my second EB article thank you.
There are several levels of strategies or research that can be used to determine the effectiveness
of evidence. The level is based on how it will be impacted by biases and its outcomes (Glasofer
& Townsend, 2019).
The highest level 1 of research technique would use RCT, Systematic Review, and Meta
Analysis. These have been noted to provide the best evidence. If used together it has an even
stronger effectiveness (NOVA, 2021). These types of studies would be good for cause and
evaluate the effect.
The next level 2 may involve Quasi experimental and Systematic Review, but it may be missing
a criteria that would be found when doing an experimental research. This type of research does
not have the same strength but can be used for comparison research like a pre and posttest effect
(Glasofer & Townsend, 2019).
Level 3 is considered Non-experimental with no manipulation of the variables. This level can use
Systematic Review, RCT and Meta Analysis but it is not required (Glasofer & Townsend,
2020)1. It can also be called observation research; the researcher observes but does not have an
intervention. This type of research could be used to see the effect something has. They may ask
the group to write a daily occurrence to see the effect. In this research area the researcher could
use, case -control -look at a condition and compare with someone who does not have that
condition (Glasofer & Townsend, 2020)1.
In level 4 the researcher is using opinions or statements. These could be found in clinical practice
guidelines, position or consensus statements. The guideline is tested and reviewed by experts,
consensus and position statements are as well but also go through peer reviews and are limited
(Glasofer & Townsend, 2020)2. These options may not have the same quality as the levels
before them. However, they are good for comparison information when looking for evidence-
The last level 5 and has the least quality of evidence is Literature Review which does not have
set standards. Literature Review can give a helpful summary of information but should be used
with caution (Glasofer & Townsend, 2020)2. This type of research could be used if you are just
wanting to know more about a topic, but it is not peer reviewed and may have high bias.
Levels 1,2 and 3 are the best for obtaining evidence-based practice research information that may
provide outcomes to improve healthcare and nursing interventions. An article by Gronning et al.,
(2022) conducted a study to support the importance of nursing students learning about evidence-
based practice. Showing how to incorporate evidence-based information into their work and
having the latest knowledge. They learned the importance of research to improve clinical
practice as our patients depend on us having the most accurate and reliable information.
Opinions, reviews and literature are good for comparisons and information but not for reliability
as opinions can be wrong.
Glasofer, A., Townsend, A. B., (2019). Determining the level of evidence. Nursing Critical
Care: Volume 14 – Issue 6 – p 22-25, doi: 10.1097/01.CCN.0000580120.03118.1d
Glasofer, A., Townsend, A. B., (2020)1. Determining the level of evidence. Nursing Critical
Care: Volume 15 – Issue 1 – p 24-27, doi: 10.1097/01.CCN.0000612856.94212.9b
Glasofer, A., Townsend, A. B., (2020)2. Determining the level of evidence, Nursing Critical
Care: Volume 15 – Issue 2 – p 22-26. doi: 10.1097/01.CCN.0000654792.71629.00
Grønning, K., Karlsholm, G., & André, B. (2022). Undergraduate Nursing Students’ Experiences
of Conducting Clinical Research Projects in Their Bachelor Theses – a Qualitative Study. SAGE
Open Nursing, 1–9. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1177/23779608221094537