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Topic 1 DQ 1

DQ 1: The study of systems biology, genetics, synthetic biology, and the functional analysis of genomes as the main focus in the fields of chromosomal engineering.

The study of systems biology, genetics, synthetic biology, and the functional analysis of genomes
is the main focus in fields of chromosomal engineering. Eukaryotic cells contain chromosome ends
which are protected by telomeres from incomplete DNA synthesis, inappropriate fusion, and
degradation during DNA replication. Eukaryotic chromosome ends are divided into two, telomeres
and adjacent sub-telomeric regions. Telomeres function is to protect the chromosome ends from
external attacks and to avoid the loss of genetic information.
Telomeres: Telomeres consist of double-stranded repetitive G-rich DNA with Telomeres
nucleoprotein structures at the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes. In order to conserve genetic
information, chromosomal stability, and cell survival, maintenance of the proper structure and
function of telomeres are crucial for the maintenance of genome integrity. The epigenetic
regulators play an important role in controlling the chromatin state at the telomeres and the sub-
telomeric regions. Telomeres are maintained by cellular activities associated with telomerase and
telomere binding proteins which contribute to the maintenance of chromosomal homeostasis in
yeast, animals, and plants.
The implications of Telomeres element for research: Research studies shows that the lengths
of telomeres at birth are determined by genetic makeup. Other factors such as environmental and
living conditions affect the telomere lengths during an individual’s lifespan. Extreme and long-term
stress has also been shown to negatively impact telomeres and their protective function and some
chromosomal abnormalities in offspring are influenced by the stress experienced by parents
(Konečná, K., Lyčka, M., Nohelová, L., Petráková, M., Fňašková, M., Koriťáková, E., Sováková,
P., P., Brabencová, S., Preiss, M., Rektor, I., Fajkus, J., Fojtová, M., 2019).
The implications of Telomeres element on health: The previous assumption shows that aging
is a primary risk factor for neurodegenerative disease (ND), especially in Alzheimer’s and
Parkinson’s patients. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) serves as a predictor of neurological
disease because the Telomeres ribonucleoprotein complexes that cap eukaryotic chromosomes
shorten in leukocytes with aging (Konečná, et al., 2019).
The implications of Telomeres element for life span: telomeres are most rapidly shortened
during the first four years of life and the rate of telomere shortening differs with age. in humans,
the telomere length at birth is determined mostly by genetics, environmental conditions, gender,
and maternal stress during pregnancy. Modifiable factors that can affect Telomeres include low
socioeconomic factors, and lifestyle status including obesity, cigarette smoking, and stress.

Exposure to severe and long-lasting stress conditions is associated with shorter telomere length
and notable symptoms of premature aging persisted after the stress subsided (Konečná, et al.,
How can the doctoral-prepared nurse apply this information in practice? Explain.
Currently, I work with elderly demented patients and the study of eukaryotic chromosome
with a focus on Tolemeres have shed light on some causes of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s
patients. Knowledge gained from this topic shows that individual personality which is difficult to
express is a crucial factor in the capability of each person to cope with extremely stressful
conditions. Resilient individuals with distinct personal qualities such as optimism, positive affect,
self-efficacy, and high self-esteem are relevant parameters to survive post-traumatic stress
symptoms Lee, W., K., & Cho, M., H., 2019).
Konečná, K., Lyčka, M., Nohelová, L., Petráková, M., Fňašková, M., Koriťáková, E., Sováková, P.,
P., Brabencová, S., Preiss, M., Rektor, I., Fajkus, J., Fojtová, M. (2019). Holocaust history is not
reflected in telomere homeostasis in survivors and their offspring. Journal of Psychiatric Research.
V 117, pp. 7-14. doi: 10.5483/BMBRep.2019.52.3.047. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-
Lee, W., K., & Cho, M., H. (2019). Epigenetic aspects of telomeric chromatin in Arabidopsis
thaliana. Korean Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. V52 (3), pp. 175-180. Retrieved
from DOI: 10.5483/BMBRep.2019.52.3.047. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-
 TW
Tommie Wood
replied toMargaret Mbachu
Jun 13, 2022, 3:24 PM(edited)


Replies to Margaret Mbachu
I enjoyed your discussion. I like the way you formatted the discussion; it makes it easier to
understand. I find the topic a little challenging, so much information to decipher. Your topic of
telomeres is very relatable to your current work with elderly patients with dementia. Limited

telomere reserves serve as a roadblock to cellular immortalizationt loss of telomere function
takes place with an age-related decline in fitness and cancer-inducing genome instability.
(Deepavali, et. al, 2021) I found it very interesting the fact of how this would affect patients
with social determinants of health. you mention, telomeres being affected by environmental
and living conditions and that they are affected by extreme and long-term stress. Confirmation
of the need to provide education to improve behaviors that have detrimental effects. The need
to understand how social determinants of health impact our patients.
Very informative discussion. Thanks.

Deepavali C, Kyle A. LaBella A. DePinho, R. A (2021)Telomeres: history, health, and
hallmarks of aging,
Cell,Volume 184, Issue 2,2021,Pages 306-322,ISSN 0092-

 AC
Amanda Clark
replied toMargaret Mbachu
Jun 13, 2022, 7:34 PM


Replies to Margaret Mbachu
Thank you so much Margaret for addressing telomeres. You did a nice job breaking this down
and explaining even how this is important within your current work situation with early
Dementia patients.
 MB
Mary Benjamin
replied toMargaret Mbachu
Jun 15, 2022, 1:41 PM


Replies to Margaret Mbachu
Margaret, I really enjoyed reading your post. It is readable and easy to understand. I was
reading telomere and Parkinsons disease and is interesting to know there are several factors

explaining the possible relationship between accelerated telomere shortening and Parkinson's
disease. Firstly, telomeres shortening with aging and short telomeres in leukocytes are seen in
patients with neurodegenerative diseases, particularly Parkinson's disease.  Secondly,
inflammation and thirdly, oxidative stress has been shown to lead to telomere shortening in
vitro.  Telomeres are known to have high sensitivity to damage induced by oxidative stress,
which may be related to the high guanine content.  Studying the telomere length can serve as
a marker for PD at the early stages of the disease.
Kolyada, A. K., Vaiserman, A. M., Krasnenkov, D. S., & Karaban', ,I.N. (2016). Studies of
telomere length in patients with parkinson's disease. Neuroscience and Behavioral
Physiology, 46(3), 344-347. doi:https://doi.org/10.1007/s11055-016-0239-4

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