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Discussion NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric

Discussion: NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric

COLLAPSE

Neurotransmitters and Receptor Theory
Neurotransmitters play a vital role in the normal functioning of the brain. An abnormal activity with a
neurotransmitter can cause a neuropsychiatric defect. The complete effect of a neurotransmitter ligand
or on a receptor includes one of four types which are agonist, antagonist, partial agonist, or inverse
agonist (Kowalski, Dowben, & Keltner, 2017). Agonist medications elicit the endogenous actions
(Kowalski,  Dowben, & Keltner, 2017). The agonist elicits the same response as the neuron response and
increases the net activity of the receptor in a positive direction (Kowalski, Dowben, & Keltner, 2017).
An antagonist binds to a receptor so that the endogenous agonist cannot work, it blocks or reduces the
response of a neuron to the endogenous molecule (Kowalski, Dowben, & Keltner, 2017). A partial agonist
acting alone will only increase complete effect partially on a signal initiation and transduction. However,
when an agonist is present, the partial agonist will block and reverse the effect by acting as an agonist
which reduces the full effect of the signal propagation and transduction of the agonist (Kowalski, Dowben,
& Keltner, 2017). An inverse agonist blocks the action of an agonist and produces the opposite effect of
an agonist (Kowalski, Dowben, & Keltner, 2017).
Actions of G protein and Ion Gated Channel
The G protein are large receptors of drugs that effects the physiological and pathological process while
the the ligand gated ion channels are an essential protein membrane with a pore which allows the flow of
selected ions across plasma membranes (Alexander, Peters, Kelly, Marrion, Faccenda, Harding, Pawson,
Sharman, Southan, & Davies, 2017). The ion gated channels are either open or closed by the binding of a
neurotransmitters that triggers changes which leads to a change conducting state (Alexander,
Peters, Kelly, Marrion, Faccenda, Harding, Pawson, Sharman, Southan, & Davies, 2017).
Modulation or gating occurs by binding at endogenous or exogenous modulators to sites and ion gated
channels promote swift synaptic transmission in the nervous subsystem by releasing neurotransmitters
from the presynaptic neuron and the activation of postsynaptic receptors which allows for a swift basic
electrical communication (Alexander, Peters, Kelly, Marrion, Faccenda, Harding, Pawson,
Sharman, Southan, & Davies, 2017).
Epigenetics and Pharmacology
Epigenetic changes are reversible and can have the potential to effected by pharmacological
interventions. Epigenetic drugs are helpful in the treatment of major health conditions such as cancer,
brain disorders and cardiovascular diseases (Cacabelos, & Torrellas, 2015).
Impact on Prescription
Understanding how neurotransmitters and receptors work in the brain and body is vital for nurse
practitioners to understand when prescribing medications to promote optimal health responses and
outcomes. For example, when prescribing the medication flumazenil, a benzodiazepam antagonist, it will
not be effective if it binds to a receptor without the presence of benzodiazepam, however when combined
with benzodiazepam, the flumazenil will reverse the activity of benzodiazepam (Kowalski, Dowben, &
Keltner, 2017). Hence flumazenil is used in treatment to reverse overdose of benzodiazepam.
Dopamine is an agonist used in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson disease, the exogenous
agonist will produce the same effect as the endogenous dopamine and enable the correction of the low
levels of dopamine in a patient as the patient will have the same effect as the endogenous dopamine
(Kowalski, Dowben, & Keltner, 2017).

References

Alexander, S. P., Peters, J. A., Kelly, E., Marrion, N. V., Faccenda, E.,
Harding, S. D., Pawson, A. J., Sharman, J. L., Southan, C., & Davies, J. A.
(2017). The concise guide to pharmacology 2017/18: Ligand-gated ion
channels. British Journal of Pharmacology, 174 Suppl 1,
S130–S159. https://doi.org/10.1111/bph.13879.
Cacabelos, R., & Torrellas, C. (2015). Epigenetic of aging and Alzheimer's
disease: Implications for pharmacogenomics and drug

Discussion NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric

Discussion NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS:Discussion: NURS_6630_Week2_Discussion_Rubric

response. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16(12),
30483–30543. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms161226236.
Kowalski, P. C., Dowben, J. S., & Keltner, N. L. (2017). My dad can beat your
dad: Agonists, antagonists, partial agonists, and inverse

agonists. Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, 53(2),
76–79. https://doi.org/10.1111/ppc.12208
Retrieved
from https://web.s.ebscohost.com/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=28&sid=ca
2c7624-98fe-4ce8-bff3-508749688625%40redis.

REPLY QUOTE EMAIL AUTHOR

1 month ago
Stephanie Stanton WALDEN INSTRUCTOR MANAGER
RE: CYP enzymes 1A2, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4
COLLAPSE

Wonderful Doris!
The five most important CYP enzymes include 1A2, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4.
What are substrate and inhibitor examples for each? How can this affect
drug therapy?
REPLY QUOTE EMAIL AUTHOR
Hide 1 reply

1 month ago
Doris Uwosomah
RE: CYP enzymes 1A2, 2D6, 2C9, 2C19, 3A4
COLLAPSE

Thank you for Dr. Stanton for the question. The individual CYP enzymes vary in shape, size and
composition which gives them their distinct substrates specificity form (Beck, Beck, Morningstar,
Benjamin, & Norris, 2021). The cytochrome of 450 enzymes are primarily lipophilic and have a
preference for lipophilic substrates (Beck et al., 2021).  For instance the inhibitors of 3A4, 2C19, 2C9 are
primarily lipophilic.  The inhibitors of 3A4 and 2C9 have larger structures in comparison to inhibitors of
1A2 (Beck at al., 2012). Substrates of CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 are made up of small sized molecules
known as furanocoumarin, diltiazem, misfepristonee, buproprion and fluoxetine (Beck et al., 2021). Some
substrates of  CYP1A2 include caffeine, paracetamol, and aflatoxin (Beck et al., 2021).
Knowledge of substrates and inhibitors impact drug therapy by providing clinicians with an understanding
of how drugs are metabolized in the body and its efficacy. About 2.8 percent of yearly hospitalizations in
the United States is related to adverse drug interactions, and drug to drug interactions usually occur due
to major cytochrome P450 inhibition (Beck et al., 2021).   Lipophilicity impacts drug solubility, permeability
and metabolism and represents a key factor in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics toxic
actions of chemical structures (Yusra, 2019).  Adverse drug interactions can be minimized and prevented
with an understanding of how drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, excreted and its toxic levels
in the body.
References

Beck, T. C., Beck, K. R., Morningstar, J., Benjamin, M. M., & Norris, R. A.
(2021). Descriptors of cytochrome inhibitors and useful machine learning

based methods for the design of safer drugs. Pharmaceuticals, 14(5),
472. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ph14050472.
Yusra, S. K. (2019). Exploring the chemical space of cytochrome P450
inhibitors using integrated physicochemical parameters, drug efficiency
metrics and decision tree models. Computation, 7(2),
26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/computation7020026

REPLY QUOTE EMAIL AUTHOR

1 month ago

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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