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Discussion NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience

Discussion: NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience

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        Foundational Neuroscience

Psychiatric nurse practitioner needs to have a good knowledge of foundational neuroscience and the impacts of psychopharmacology in the central nervous system. This is essential in the diagnosis and treating patients with psychiatric disorders. This post will give a response to the topics below to show how the concept of foundational neuroscience applies to the role of psychiatric mental health nurse practitioners in prescribing patients’ medications.

The agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments

Agonists are medications or molecules that bind to specific receptors and induce some impulse transmission which leads to a biological response, while antagonists are medications or agents that bind to specific receptors, and does not induce any actions or signal, but at the same time prevent any other molecule from doing so, as long as it is bound to that receptor. Drugs like barbiturates and morphine are agonists. (Abimbola, F. 2021).

Partial agonists are molecules or medications that bind to the receptor and exerts a partial or mild effect on the receptor, causing it to act weakly and not to full potential, while inverse agonists are molecules or agents that bind to the receptor, inhibits the action or normal activity, and applies an opposite action.

So, when certain medications are given concurrently, their different spectrums of actions can affect the efficacy of psychopharmacologic treatments. Antagonists, partial and inverse agonists occupy a certain space, inhibiting agonists from binding and acting. While an antagonist will produce no biological effect, a partial agonist will exert a less than normal action and an inverse agonist will give an opposite activity to the action it stops when bound to receptor.

Comparing and contrasting the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels

Ligands are molecules that bind to receptors. These receptors have existing sites which are specific for binding of particular ligands, both of which match each other just like a key matches a particular lock. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and ion channels are types of physiologic and drug-receptor proteins. Both receptors are on the cell surface and transmembrane and have ligand-binding domains and effector domains. Ion flux through ion channels is rapid and they rapidly alter neuronal activity and membrane potential, while GPCRs transmission is through slower second messenger systems (Stern et al., 2016).  Examples of ion channels are acetylcholine binding to nicotinic receptors where sodium enters the cell causing an electrochemical gradient to be created which results in depolarization. Other examples are GABA, Glutamate, Glycerin, while examples of GPCR are acetylcholine (muscarinic), alpha and beta-adrenergic receptor proteins, and eicosanoids (Abimbola, 2021).

Ion channels are transmitter-activated channels, they are divided into ligand-gated and voltage-gated ion channels. Ligand-gated ion channels (LGIC) require specific ligand-gated channels on their cell membrane to enable hydrophilic molecules to move through it and into the cell. Once the ligands link and bind to the receptors, the ligand-binding domain recognizes the specific ligand and causes the channel gate to open and enable movement of small ions like sodium ion (Na+), calcium ion (Ca2+), potassium ion (K+), and chloride ions (Cl−). The effector domain produces this downstream effect, and inside the cells are located hydrophobic molecules receptors. Also, LGICs are called ionotropic receptors with the same molecules acting as the receptor as well as the channel.

G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of cell surface receptors. They are integral membrane proteins that act through G proteins and regulate the function of the wide range of enzymes and ion channels. These membrane proteins enable cells to convert extracellular signals into intracellular responses. Once the ligand binds to the receptor, it causes structural changes in the receptor, thereby changing the shape of the G protein by reducing guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and causing the subunits to divide into alpha on one side and beta and gamma units on the other side. This process then leads to the activation of other enzymes and effector proteins (Wang et al., 2018), producing responses to neurotransmitters, hormone signals, taste, olfaction, and vision signals. As mentioned above, GPCRs act by second messenger systems, they “convert receptor signals into a coordinated set of cellular effects by altering the function of multiple target proteins. These targets include ion channels that control neuronal firing, synaptic proteins that regulate synaptic efficacy, and cytoskeletal elements that determine cellular morphology” (Stern et al., 2016. P. 10).

How the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action

Current drug discovery efforts are targeting epigenetic dysregulations; pharmacological actions are directed towards acting on the enzymes that distort or alter the epigenetic codes. Thereby will redesign the chromatin material and largely change the global gene regulation. Moreso, by using epigenetic marks, a particular gene responsible for a disorder or disease is identified and some medications are designed to target that specific abnormally regulated gene (Lansdowne, 2018).

How this information may impact the way medications are prescribed to patients

This means that practitioners must do comprehensive history taking to get to know their patients well and also possess a sound knowledge of the medications’ possible effect on the individual patient factors before medications are prescribed. Also, the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner must also be aware of the medication’s action, for example, in cases like Alzheimer’s where there is degeneration, or in other mental disorders, the change or loss in the identity of the cell are defined, and drugs are developed to target the proteins used in reading, erasing, or writing the epigenetic marks (Lansdowne, 2018). In bipolar disorder, second messenger pathway which involves glycogen synthase kinase is being targeted to mediate some therapeutic efficacy of lithium salts (Stren et al. 2018). Knowing this will better direct her choice of drugs, thus prolonging the patient’s sanity and quality of life.

Conclusion

Psychiatric nurse practitioners need to have a good knowledge of foundational neuroscience and the impacts of psychopharmacology in the central nervous system. This is essential in the diagnosis and treating patients with psychiatric disorders, thereby bringing about global sanity and improving the quality of life.

References

Abimbola, F. (2021) Drug–Receptor Interactions https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/clinical-pharmacology/pharmacodynamics/drug%E2%80%93receptor-interactions

Lansdowne, L. E. (2018). Epigenetics and drug discovery. Technology Networks https://www.technologynetworks.com/drug-discovery/articles/epigenetics-and-drug-discovery-306821

Stern, T. A., Favo, M., Wilens, T. E., & Rosenbaum, J. F. (2016). Massachusetts general hospital psychopharmacology and neurotherapeutics. Elsevier.

Wang W, Qiao Y, Li Z. (2018). New insights into modes of GPCR activation. Trends Pharmacological Science. 39(4):367-386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2018.01.001

As a psychiatric nurse practitioner, it is essential for you to have a strong background in foundational
neuroscience. In order to diagnose and treat patients, you must not only understand the
pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders but also how medications for these disorders impact the
central nervous system. These concepts of foundational neuroscience can be challenging to understand.
Therefore, this Discussion is designed to encourage you to think through these concepts, develop a
rationale for your thinking, and deepen your understanding by interacting with your colleagues.

Photo Credit: Getty Images/Cultura RF
For this Discussion, review the Learning Resources and reflect on the concepts of foundational
neuroscience as they might apply to your role as the psychiatric mental health nurse practitioner in
prescribing medications for patients.
By Day 3 of Week 2
Post a response to each of the following:
1. Explain the agonist-to-antagonist spectrum of action of psychopharmacologic agents, including
how partial and inverse agonist functionality may impact the efficacy of psychopharmacologic
treatments.
2. Compare and contrast the actions of g couple proteins and ion gated channels.
3. Explain how the role of epigenetics may contribute to pharmacologic action.
4. Explain how this information may impact the way you prescribe medications to patients. Include
a specific example of a situation or case with a patient in which the psychiatric mental health
nurse practitioner must be aware of the medication’s action.

Discussion NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience

Discussion NURS 6630 Foundational Neuroscience

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Read a selection of your colleagues' responses.
By Day 6 of Week 2
Respond to at least two of your colleagues on two different days in one of the following ways:
 If your colleagues’ posts influenced your understanding of these concepts, be sure to share how
and why. Include additional insights you gained.
 If you think your colleagues might have misunderstood these concepts, offer your alternative
perspective and be sure to provide an explanation for them. Include resources to support your
perspective.
Note: For this Discussion, you are required to complete your initial post before you will be able to view
and respond to your colleagues’ postings. Begin by clicking on the "Post to Discussion Question" link and
then select "Create Thread" to complete your initial post. Remember, once you click on Submit, you
cannot delete or edit your own posts, and you cannot post anonymously. Please check your post carefully
before clicking on Submit!

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Excellent

Point range: 90–100

Good

Point range: 80–89

Fair

Point range: 70–79

Poor

Point range: 0–69

Main Posting:

Response to the Discussion question is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

40 (40%) – 44 (44%)

Thoroughly responds to the Discussion question(s).

Is reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module and current credible sources.

No less than 75% of post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three current credible sources.

35 (35%) – 39 (39%)

Responds to most of the Discussion question(s).

Is somewhat reflective with critical analysis and synthesis representative of knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

50% of the post has exceptional depth and breadth.

Supported by at least three credible references.

31 (31%) – 34 (34%)

Responds to some of the Discussion question(s).

One to two criteria are not addressed or are superficially addressed.

Is somewhat lacking reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Somewhat represents knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Post is cited with fewer than two credible references.

(0%) – 30 (30%)

Does not respond to the Discussion question(s).

Lacks depth or superficially addresses criteria.

Lacks reflection and critical analysis and synthesis.

Does not represent knowledge gained from the course readings for the module.

Contains only one or no credible references.

Main Posting:

Writing

(6%) – 6 (6%)

Written clearly and concisely.

Contains no grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Written concisely.

May contain one to two grammatical or spelling errors.

Adheres to current APA manual writing rules and style.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Written somewhat concisely.

May contain more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Contains some APA formatting errors.

(0%) – 3 (3%)

Not written clearly or concisely.

Contains more than two spelling or grammatical errors.

Does not adhere to current APA manual writing rules and style.

Main Posting:

Timely and full participation

(9%) – 10 (10%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts main Discussion by due date.

(8%) – 8 (8%)

Posts main Discussion by due date.

Meets requirements for full participation.

(7%) – 7 (7%)
Posts main Discussion by due date.
(0%) – 6 (6%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post main Discussion by due date.

First Response:

Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.

(9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

(8%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.
(7%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth.
(0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
First Response:
Writing
(6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

(0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

First Response:
Timely and full participation
(5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

(3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date.
(0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Second Response:
Post to colleague’s main post that is reflective and justified with credible sources.
(9%) – 9 (9%)

Response exhibits critical thinking and application to practice settings.

Responds to questions posed by faculty.

The use of scholarly sources to support ideas demonstrates synthesis and understanding of learning objectives.

(8%) – 8 (8%)
Response has some depth and may exhibit critical thinking or application to practice setting.
(7%) – 7 (7%)
Response is on topic, may have some depth.
(0%) – 6 (6%)
Response may not be on topic, lacks depth.
Second Response:
Writing
(6%) – 6 (6%)

Communication is professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are fully answered, if posed.

Provides clear, concise opinions and ideas that are supported by two or more credible sources.

Response is effectively written in Standard, Edited English.

(5%) – 5 (5%)

Communication is mostly professional and respectful to colleagues.

Response to faculty questions are mostly answered, if posed.

Provides opinions and ideas that are supported by few credible sources.

Response is written in Standard, Edited English.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Response posed in the Discussion may lack effective professional communication.

Response to faculty questions are somewhat answered, if posed.

Few or no credible sources are cited.

(0%) – 3 (3%)

Responses posted in the Discussion lack effective communication.

Response to faculty questions are missing.

No credible sources are cited.

Second Response:
Timely and full participation
(5%) – 5 (5%)

Meets requirements for timely, full, and active participation.

Posts by due date.

(4%) – 4 (4%)

Meets requirements for full participation.

Posts by due date.

(3%) – 3 (3%)
Posts by due date.
(0%) – 2 (2%)

Does not meet requirements for full participation.

Does not post by due date.

Total Points: 100
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