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California National University Airline Consolidations Case Study
In this assignment, you will be choosing either a qualitative OR quantitative methodology to apply to answer your research question. Write an analysis proposing and justifying which type of qualitative or quantitative methodology could be applied to answer the research question.
This paper is to demonstrate your ability to apply qualitative or quantitative methods to your unique RQ, not summarize what others have done. Be sure to provide strong levels of detail in your methodological proposal. Address the following elements in the proposal:
Briefly restate the research question for qualitative or quantitative research.
Propose the qualitative or quantitative methodology by:
- Explaining your methodological approach.
- Describing the method to collect the data.
For qualitative: Be sure to describe how any interview will be developed and validated.
- For quantitative: Be sure to describe how any data collection tool (e.g., survey, questionnaire, test, etc.) will be developed and validated.
- Describing the method to analyze the data.
For qualitative: Be sure to name specific coding approaches and justify that approach.
- For quantitative: Identify the statistical test(s) to explain the hypothesis. Explain your rationale for using the selected test.
- You MUST name specific inferential statistic(s). Descriptive statistics and visualization (e.g., graphs and charts) do NOT answer RQs.
- Resource: Descriptive vs Inferential Statistics (opens in new window)
RESEARCH PROPOSAL 1 How Does Work Burnout Impact Nurse Turnover Retention? Los Angeles University PSYC 300 Research Methods Dr. Josh Morgan 01/20/2023 Research Question: How Does Work Burnout Impact Nurse Turnover Retention? 2 RESEARCH PROPOSAL Article List Daouda, O. S., Hocine, M. N., & Temime, L. (2021). Determinants of healthcare worker turnover in intensive care units: A micro-macro multilevel analysis. PloS one, 16(5), e0251779. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251779 Gebregziabher, D., Berhanie, E., Berihu, H., Belstie, A., & Teklay, G. (2020). The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention among nurses in Axum comprehensive and specialized hospital Tigray, Ethiopia. BMC nursing, 19(1), 1-8. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12912-020-00468-0 Mengstie, M. M. (2020). Perceived organizational justice and turnover intention among hospital healthcare workers. BMC psychology, 8(1), 1-11. https://bmcpsychology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40359-020-0387-8 Ran, L., Chen, X., Peng, S., Zheng, F., Tan, X., & Duan, R. (2020). Job burnout and turnover intention among Chinese primary healthcare staff: the mediating effect of satisfaction. BMJ open, 10(10), e036702. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/10/e036702.abstract Sabety, A. H., Jena, A. B., & Barnett, M. L. (2021). Changes in health care use and outcomes after a turnover in primary care. JAMA internal medicine, 181(2), 186-194. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181(2):186-194. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6288 Woldekiros, A. N., Getye, E., & Abdo, Z. A. (2022). Magnitude of job satisfaction and intention to leave their present job among nurses in selected federal hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PloS one, 17(6), e0269540. 3 RESEARCH PROPOSAL Annotated Bibliography Ran, L., Chen, X., Peng, S., Zheng, F., Tan, X., & Duan, R. (2020). Job burnout and turnover intention among Chinese primary healthcare staff: the mediating effect of satisfaction. BMJ open, 10(10), e036702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036702 The authors of this article include Li Ran, Xuyu Chen, Shuzhen Peng, Feng Zheng, Xiadong Tan, and Ruihua Duan. The authors are scholars in healthcare sciences who have experience in the field and are, therefore, qualified to write this document. The authors’ purpose in writing the article is to investigate the connection between job burnout, satisfaction, and turnover intention in nursing. The bias/assumptions upon which the rationale of the literature has been written is the influence of demographic characteristics on turnover intention. The authors have used a cross-sectional quantitative study as the preferred methodology to obtain the data. The participants included primary medical staff from Huangpi District in China. The data was collected using electronic questionnaires to all the eligible participants. Statistical analysis was used as the analytical approach in this research. The conclusions drawn in this scenario were that job burnout positively predicted turnover intention, and this conclusion has been expressly stated. Research carried out by the authors has justified the conclusions in this particular reading. Additionally, they are in sync with the original purpose of the research and supported by data, and they are not skewed by bias. The work is current (carried out in the last few years), relevant to the topic at hand, and does not conflict with established research. 1 Research of Religion Methodologies Name University Name Course Professor Date 2 Research of Religion Methodologies Research on religious issues attracts unique methodological challenges and problems not associated with other research topics. Although modern researchers consider religion a cultural phenomenon that scientific methods can study, they do not state the specific techniques and approaches for examining religious phenomena. As a research subject, religion is found at the intersection of quantitative and qualitative research. With the growing interest in religious research, selecting a suitable methodology and corresponding research paradigm is a key challenge. However, the qualitative methodology has demonstrated greater efficiency in analyzing religious phenomena due to its interpretive research paradigm. Analysis of Readings on Qualitative Research The first applied method in qualitative research that surprised me is the interview method. After going through the readings, I noted that interviews do not simply involve preparing questions on the research topic and posing them to the respondents. Instead, the interview technique in religious research must adhere to several strategies for success. These strategies include seeking permission, assuring respondents of confidentiality, familiarizing themselves with them, asking open-ended questions, and gaining clarification (Gajaweera & Johnson, 2015). Besides these strategies, I was also surprised to learn of the unique interview questions applicable to religious research. The questions highlighted in this reading are biographical, guided tour, and grand tour. Utilizing all the questions will offer a detailed understanding of the religious subject. Besides interviewing, another applied method that surprised me is the application of participant observation. Like other research, religious research encompasses deep immersion in people’s religious rituals and practices. Religious researches using this technique are more 3 demanding due to the need for the researcher to participate in practices and rituals, including those to which they do not subscribe. Moreover, researchers using participant observation must record their feelings and reactions during the research process (Gajaweera & Johnson, 2015). Although uncomfortable, especially when the religious practices and rituals appear weird, it is essential in interpreting the findings Strengths and Weaknesses of Qualitative Methods The qualitative technique has several strengths in respecting and capturing multicultural diversity within religion. First, participant observation allows the researcher to take locally informed and context-sensitive notes about the experiences and observations (Gajaweera & Johnson, 2015). This will enable them to appreciate the diversity of religious practices. Second, the researcher must pay attention to the composition of the religious community based on identifiable markers like race, age, ethnicity, and gender. This ensures they respect diversity in collecting and analyzing data. Researchers using the qualitative technique be perceptive of the sacred experiences of the members of the religious community (Gajaweera & Johnson, 2016). Lastly, a qualitative technique like interviewing requires the researchers to avoid negative or positive feedback from respondents. Doing so will insinuate approval and disapproval of some practices, undermining multiculturalism. However, qualitative techniques have several weaknesses in upholding multicultural diversity in religion. First, scholars have argued that participant observation cannot be used as a standalone method in religious research (Denton & Smith, 2001). This is due to its failure to capture vital cultural aspects within religion. Based on this, the method must be used alongside interviews or focus groups. Second, researchers may be affected by biases during the interviews and participant observation. This will adversely impact the interpretation of the findings. Lastly, 4 respondents may be uncooperative, especially with people they consider unfamiliar with their religious practices and rituals. This may force researchers to discontinue the study. Conclusion Qualitative and quantitative approaches can be applied to religious research. However, the choice of the most appropriate approach must be based on the research findings’ generalizability, validity, and reliability. In some cases, religion can be studied using a mixed methodology, which combines qualitative and quantitative research methods. In light of these developments, religion should be studied as a phenomenon linked to human physiology rather than as a cultural construct. 5 References Denton, M. L., & Smith, C. (2001). Methodological Issues and Challenges in the Study of American Youth and Religion. National Study of Youth and Religion. https://youthandreligion.nd.edu/assets/102503/methodological_issues_and_chal lenges_in_the_study_of_american_youth_and_religion.pdf Gajaweera, N., & Johnson, A. (2015). What methodologies can I use to study religious groups? Center for Religion and Civic Culture. https://crcc.usc.edu/report/studying-faithqualitative-methodologies-for-studying-religious-communities/what-methodologies-cani-use-to-study-religious-groups/ Gajaweera, N., & Johnson, A. (2016). Studying faith: Qualitative methodologies for studying religious communities. Center for Religion and Civic Culture. https://crcc.usc.edu/report/studying-faith-qualitative-methodologies-forstudying-religious-communities/ LITERATURE REVIEW 1 Literature Review Los Angeles Pacific University PSYC 300 Research Methods Josh Morgan 01/28/2023 2 LITERATURE REVIEW Literature Review This literature review focuses on the research question, “how does work burnout nurse impact turnover intention?” This is a topic of importance, mainly because the nursing profession’s turnover rates are high. This issue is impacting the quality of care given to the patients. The prediction of nurse turnover can play a significant role in avoiding expensive costs and staff loss. Understanding the considerable burden caused by high nurse turnover (Sabety et al., 2021) is essential. In this research, it is critical to ascertain the issue of nurse turnover through research on relevant sources dealing with this particular topic. The sources offer credible information linked to the topic and give more detailed insight concerning the scope of the topic as well as essential issues of consideration and possible solutions. Daouda et al. (2021) highlight that high turnover among healthcare workers is a significant phenomenon in hospitals. This has enormous financial consequences, a major issue of concern in patient care. Gebregziabher et al. (2020) reveal that a high turnover of nurses will result in several adverse outcomes, such as decreased levels of customer service, low patient safety, poor quality of nursing, and poor healthcare coordination will adversely impact patient outcomes. Mengstie (2020) perceives that organizational justice is essential in reducing nurse turnover in healthcare. In hospitals with high turnover intention, organizational justice will usually be lacking. Ran et al. (2020) reveal that job satisfaction is another critical issue that may impact job burnout and turnover intention among nurses in the care setting. Sabety et al. (2021) recognize that disruptions in the continuity of care caused by issues such as high nurse turnover can lead to adverse patient outcomes. Woldekiros et al. (2022) reveal that job dissatisfaction is an increasing problem that may threaten healthcare functions and is directly linked to nursing turnover intention. 3 LITERATURE REVIEW It is evident that nurse turnover harms healthcare and reduces patient quality of care. The services given to patients will be interrupted due to high nurse turnover, and this is because of the reduced nurse-to-patient ratio, which means that each nurse will have a more significant number of patients to attend to. Additionally, this issue will also affect the satisfaction of the patients and the confidence of the patients in the caregivers (Daouda et al., 2022). The effective management of nurse turnover is critical and especially since there are increased rates of readmission or patient complications when the quality of care given to the patients is subpar. When there are increased rates of turnover, then the managerial processes and hospital revenue will increase due to the need to recruit and train new nurses. There is a considerable risk of short staffing in the nursing department due to nurse turnover, which will affect the dispensation of care. There are different reasons why nurses leave their jobs, including personal reasons or accepting jobs from competing organizations. Based on this research, it is critical to formulate a question that may need further research. One question is, “how can nurse leaders solve the crisis of high nurse turnover in healthcare institutions?” The question is critical since it helps solve the identified gap in research in this scenario (Ran et al., 2020). It helps provide feasible solutions to the issue of low nursing turnover. This will impact future research on this topic, which will play a critical role in addressing the research problem. The formulation of this research question offers a new scope of research on the topic while also enhancing problem-solving capacities. It also focuses on a critical unexplored area in the topic, facilitating a more effective coverage of the topic and creating a positive outcome in the study. The literature review has covered critical topics of concern in the study based on the research question. 4 LITERATURE REVIEW References Daouda, O. S., Hocine, M. N., & Temime, L. (2021). Determinants of healthcare worker turnover in intensive care units: A micro-macro multilevel analysis. PloS one, 16(5), e0251779. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251779 Gebregziabher, D., Berhanie, E., Berihu, H., Belstie, A., & Teklay, G. (2020). The relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention among nurses in Axum comprehensive and specialized hospital Tigray, Ethiopia. BMC nursing, 19(1), 1-8. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12912-020-00468-0 Mengstie, M. M. (2020). Perceived organizational justice and turnover intention among hospital healthcare workers. BMC psychology, 8(1), 1-11. https://bmcpsychology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40359-020-0387-8 Ran, L., Chen, X., Peng, S., Zheng, F., Tan, X., & Duan, R. (2020). Job burnout and turnover intention among Chinese primary healthcare staff: the mediating effect of satisfaction. BMJ open, 10(10), e036702. https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/10/10/e036702.abstract Sabety, A. H., Jena, A. B., & Barnett, M. L. (2021). Changes in health care use and outcomes after a turnover in primary care. JAMA internal medicine, 181(2), 186-194. JAMA Intern Med. 2021;181(2):186-194. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.6288 Woldekiros, A. N., Getye, E., & Abdo, Z. A. (2022). The magnitude of job satisfaction and intention to leave their present job among nurses in selected federal hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. PloS one, 17(6), e0269540. 1 Qualitative Methodology: Autism and Gender Difference Los Angeles Pacific University PSYC 300: Research Methods Dr. Joshua Morgan 2 Proposed Methodology While progress has been made in researching Autism Spectrum Disorder (autism), there are still numerous questions. The largest questions is how autism develops and why it is more frequently developing in males than females and why there is a difference in the way it manifests in males and females. In seeking how gender differences contribute to the development and manifestation of autism, it is important to examine the qualities of autism that are impacting the lives of those afflicted. These impacts can include quality of life, emotional, psychological and developmental. These impacts also must be examined to see if they are gender specific or if they can be generalized to both males and females. While prior research has focused heavily on the potential biological and physiological explanations for the development of autism, this research has also focused on males due to the elevated prevalence in males often to the exclusion of females. In examining qualitative data regarding the impact of autism on the lives of those diagnosed, further research can be done examining specific issues in an attempt find root causes and how gender differences that either contribute to or explain the differences or similarities in the root causes of the issues. Participants A group of 28 participants will be required for this experiment. These 28 participants would be comprised of 14 men and 14 women. Of these, seven men will be either adults with autism or caretakers for adults with autism, seven women will be either adults with autism or caretakers for adults with autism. Seven more adults that have a male child (birth to 17 years old) with autism and seven more adults that have a female child (birth to 17 years old) with autism. The participants will be recruited by requesting volunteers from the West San Gabriel Valley Special Education Local Plan Areas (SELPA). The SELPA oversees how special education 3 services are provided for a given area. There will be no compensation provided for the participants. Procedure The participants will be divided into focus groups by sex and age or age of the person diagnosed with autism. The seven adult men that have autism or are caretakers for an adult with autism will be placed into a focus group with the seven women that have autism or are caretakers for an adult with autism. The seven adults with a male child (birth to 17 years old) with autism will be placed into a focus group with the seven adults with a female child (birth to 17 years old) with autism. Each focus group will be provided with questions regarding the quality of the diagnostic process they experienced, the quality of support services, interventions and therapies available and provided to them and asked to discuss each topic with the group. While the group discusses each topic a researcher will take an audio recording of the discussion. The purpose of designing this research in a focus group format is to gather information and feedback from those who have experience with the diagnostic process, support service, interventions and therapies available. Jhangiani, Cuttler and Leighton (2019) explain that the strengths of qualitative research include the ability to lead researchers to new or different questions as well as a better understanding of the experience that is living with autism or caring for someone with autism through the qualitative descriptions. The purpose in seeking out qualitative information regarding the experiences of children or those with children and adults or caretakers of adults with autism is to gain perspective on how these issues grow and change over the course of a lifespan, manifest differently over time or change for the better or worse over time. Analysis 4 Cridland, Jones, Caputi and Magee (2015) examined and discussed the benefits and challenges of analyzing qualitative data as it pertains to conducting interview style research with families living with autism. Some issues that need to be considered are not deviating from the original data when transcribing the recordings of the discussions and being aware of not only what is mentioned in the discussions but also what is not discussed (Cridland, Jones, Caputi & Magee, 2015). In an attempt to minimize the risk of deviating from the original data, the audio recordings will be used in addition to the transcripts for the purpose of analysis. Participants will also be included in the analysis process by having them listen to the audio recording or reading the transcripts not only to confirm that what they have said was appropriately understood but to confirm that conclusions drawn are in line with what they said during the discussion and their experiences. Cridland, Jones, Caputi and Magee (2015) who also stated that “some participants find such involvement to be rewards and/or therapeutic” (p. 81) which can help to build support networks for the participants. The data will ultimately be analyzed and sorted into topics or themes and further sorted into gender specific or generalized difficulties. Discussion While Cridland, Jones, Caputi and Magee (2015) note an increase in qualitative research focusing on those diagnosed with autism and their families, there are still more questions to be answered. In the forefront of this experiment is determining how gender differences impact the lives of those diagnosed with autism as well as their families. Examining qualitative information regarding these gender differences can help to determine if these issues are specific to males, who experience a high prevalence of autism, or if these issues can be generalized to both males and females diagnosed with autism. Additionally, qualitative data can provide further questions for research helping to potentially lead to better understanding of how gender differences 5 contribute to the development of autism based on the differences in manifestation. Limitations of this study include a small sample size with 28 participants that are localized to one geographical area. While these participants may have struggles that could be found through further research to be common amongst a larger or even the entire population, the small sample size and geographical localization make it difficult to generalize the data results of this study. Opportunities for further research stemming from this study include examining the same or similar questions presented in other geographical areas, studies examining the same or similar questions to larger participant groups and including different service providers such as educators, occupational therapists, physical therapists, mental health professionals, behavioral therapists and social workers to compare their experiences with those of the families or those diagnosed with autism. References Cridland, E. K., Jones, S. C., Caputi, P., & Magee, C. A. (2015). Qualitative research with families living with autism spectrum disorder: recommendations for conducting semistructured interviews. 6 Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 40(1), 78-91. https://doi.org/ 10.3109/13668250.2014.964191 Jhangiani, R.S., Cuttler, C., & Leighton, D.C. (2019). Research methods in psychology ( 4th ed.). C reative Commons Attribution. https://kpu.pressbooks.pub/psychmethods4e/chapter/methods-of-knowing