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Biomedical Ethics In The Christian Narrative DQ

Biomedical Ethics In The Christian Narrative DQ

Part 1: Chart

Medical Indications

Beneficence and Nonmaleficence

In order to make a diagnosis and determine treatment options, there is a need to assess medical indications exhibited by a patient. Beneficence refers to a health professional acting with best intentions to provide care to patients whereas non-beneficence encourages care providers not to do harm (Gillon, 2018). As per the case study, the surrogates of James acted in the best interest of the patient even the medical condition of James would still be worse even when treated.

Patient Preferences

Autonomy

Autonomy refers to the right of patients to express their choice or make a decision of care yet to be administered to them (Gillon, 2018). Even though James is an underage child, his right to autonomy must be upheld. The parents ought to have consulted the patient before making a decision on care.  The physician had limited influence to alter the decisions made by the parents.

Quality of Life

Beneficence, Nonmaleficence, Autonomy

In the healthcare setting, quality of life entail the medical features of a patient after a therapy has been administered (Gillon, 2018). As per the case study, the health condition of James was worst but improved significantly after dialysis. Conversely, the patient needs a renal replacement therapy involving a kidney transplant to improve the quality of his life. His brother can donate to him his kidney but his father has an opinion to rely on faith regarding the health status of James. The parents, however, should consult James regarding the issue because the last time they relied on faith his condition worsened (Gillon, 2018). The parents should act in the best interest so that the brother can donate the kidney to optimize the quality of health for James.

Contextual Feature

Justice and Fairness

Medical decision can greatly be influenced by familial and social factors as well as legal considerations. In the case study, James’ parents relied on faith when making decision for the health status of their son (Gillon, 2018). They focused more on religious beliefs for healing rather than receiving kidney from his bother. However, the conflict of interest arose when there was a mismatch of cells between James and his brother meaning that the latter could not donate his kidney. This made the parents were therefore willing to donate the kidney and even appealed for the goodwill of well-wishers to offer this vital organ.

 

Part 2: Evaluation

Four Principles most Pressing according to Christian worldview

In the Christian perspectives, beneficence emerge as the principle with the most pressing issue pertaining to the health of a patient. The argument is guided by the premise that James’ parents made decision in the interest of their ailing son. They blindly believed that James would be healed with the support from their daily prayers (SSorajjakool et al., 2017). In this context, the parents relied more on prayers rather than providing kidney to support the life of James. Other than medical support, the parents had faith that prayers also work. No one can criticize their approach and perception in life considering that they made attempts to address the health of their son despite his deteriorating health (Hubbell, Kauschinger & Oermann, 2017). They were also against the idea about the brother donating one of his kidneys to the ailing James. All these actions affirm that the parents cared for the health status of their children. In fact, when the health status of James deteriorated while receiving homecare, they took him back to the care facility for further examination. With this, the parents aimed at addressing the health of their son despite wrong decisions that they sometimes made with regard to his care.

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How a Christian might rank the Priority of the Four Principles

In an approach of health, a Christian can give priority to the four principles by starting with beneficence as it is based on one’s

Biomedical Ethics In The Christian Narrative DQ

Biomedical Ethics In The Christian Narrative DQ

goodwill regarding the health of others. According to Christian teachings, parents need to provide love to their children and this is consistent with the principle of beneficence (SSorajjakool et al., 2017). The second priority goes to nonmaleficence which points as doing no harm to patients. Christian parents should not intend or initiate activities that harm their children. The principle is based on the Christian teaching that human life is sacred and that it should be protected by everyone. Justice and fairness are ranked the third as they ensure that health service delivery is provided without preferential treatment to anyone. In Christian teaching, every human being is equal before God and this should be demonstrated during provision of care. The last ranking on the list will be autonomy which ensures that patients make decisions on medical services provided to them. Christians need to allow their patients to choose their option of care and this decision must be respected (Hubbell, Kauschinger & Oermann, 2017). The premise ensures that the dignity of every person is upheld so that one receives quality service to improve on their well-being.

References

Gillon, R. (2018). Principlism, virtuism, and the spirit of oneness. In Healthcare Ethics, Law and Professionalism (pp. 45-59). Routledge.

Hubbell, S. L., Kauschinger, E., & Oermann, M. (2017). Development and Implementation of an Educational Module to Increase Nurses’ Comfort With Spiritual Care in an Inpatient Setting. The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing48(8), 358-364.

SSorajjakool, S., Carr, M. F., Nam, J. J., Sorajjakool, S., & Bursey, E. (2017). World religions for healthcare professionals. Routledge.

Topic 3 DQ 1

Sep 12-14, 2022

The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values. How would you rank the importance of each of the four principles? How do you believe they would be ordered in the context of the Christian biblical narrative? Refer to the topic Resources in your response.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

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Some Tips for our Discussions:

As you all are thinking about topics to bring up on the discussion board, I thought I might offer some tips to deepen the discussions.

  1. If you are responding to a post where someone provides an interesting concept, try to brainstorm a case study that might be relevant to that concept. For example, your texts brings up the situation of surrogate motherhood while discussing the principle of autonomy. There are many case studies related to surrogate motherhood that challenge the principle of autonomy.
  2. While thinking about case studies, you might also search youtube for appropriate videos that are relevant to our discussions. If you find a relevant video, post it in the discussion thread and ask a thought-provoking question to continue the discussion. If you do this, it will count as a substantive post.
  3. Quote something from one of our readings that you either agree or disagree with. After providing the quote, explain your agreement/disagreement and ask a thought-provoking question to continue the discussion. If you do this, it will count as a substantive post.

Overall, I’m still happy with what I’m seeking on the discussion board. Keep up the great work!

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The four principles, especially in the context of bioethics in the United States, has often been critiqued for raising the principle of autonomy to the highest place, such that it trumps all other principles or values. How would you rank the importance of each of the four principles? How do you believe they would be ordered in the context of the Christian biblical narrative? Refer to the topic Resources in your response.

I would rank the four principles in this order: Nonmaleficence, respect for autonomy, beneficence, then justice. The reason why I would rank the principles in this order is because I feel like doing no harm of others should be first. Following respecting a persons wishes/wants, then preventing harm to others. Lastly, justice as the fourth in line as last principle. Although principles are prima facie binding, this means that the principles or duties must be fulfilled unless they conflict on a particular occasion with an equal or stronger principle, obligation, or duty (Hoehner, 2020).

 

I believe that this order is in the context of the Christian biblical narrative as followed: beneficence, respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, then justice. I think it would be ordered this way since in the Bible, us as humans are to protect/prevent others from harm others so that is why beneficence would be first. Autonomy should be next since humans are creation of God and we were given morals and the ability to respect others. Then nonmaleficence as humans are to not cause harm to others. Justice as last again due to it meaning providing fairness and being impartial to others.

 

 

References:

Hoehner, P. J. (2020). Biomedical Ethics in the Christian Narrative. Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in Health Care. Retrieved  from https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3

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Hi

I appreciate your viewpoint. I think that above them in the ranking is the respect for anatomy this is because respect for other people is vital and should be observed regardless of the situation. Except the individual is not mentally capable of making decisions.

The second is Beneficence where harm is prevented and all that is done is for the benefit of other people the third is non-maleficence where people are obligated not to harm other people and finally justice. Here fair distribution is necessary for all people whether in terms of benefits, risks, or costs. However, I think that the ranking of these principles depends on the situation at hand. For example, I could say, Beneficence in this scenario is first because I would be performing the principle of positive beneficence by acting to help the person that collapsed, before even asking them for their permission if it’s ok to help them (Lawrence, 2007).

 

Reference

Lawrence, D. J. (2007). The Four Principles of Biomedical Ethics: A Foundation for Current Bioethical Debate. Journal of Chiropractic Humanities, 14(34-30). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1556-3499(13)60161-8

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Alycia, I enjoyed reading your post. You brought up an interesting point when you organized the four principles in the way you did. Often beneficence and nonmaleficence are thought to be interchangeable, however, according to the reading, they are much different and can lead a healthcare professional on different paths. Beneficence is rather broad and simply focuses on doing what is best. While nonmaleficence means doing no harm (Hoehner, 2020). That does not mean not doing a medical treatment because it might be painful, it simply means doing the treatment to prevent harm for the patient. I agree with you, but rather believe that nonmaleficence comes before the other principles in the care of our patients.

Reference:

Hoehner, P. (2020). Biomedical Ethics in the Christian Narrative. In GCU’s Practicing dignity: An introduction to Christian values and decision making in Health Care. https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3

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