Assignment: What is naturalistic observation?
Review Questions 7
Review Questions, 1-8,. Please answer questions in detail and support your answers with scholarly research citations where appropriate. Support your paper with a minimum of 5 resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included.
Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference pages References: Minimum of 5 scholarly resources. Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts that are presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your paper should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.
Review Questions 1. What is naturalistic observation? How does a researcher collect data when conducting naturalistic observation research? 2. Why are the data in naturalistic observation research primarily qualitative? 3. Distinguish between participant and nonparticipant observation; between concealed and nonconcealed observation. 4. What is systematic observation? Why are the data from systematic observation primarily quantitative? 5. What is coding system? What are some important considerations when developing a coding system? 6. What is a case study? When are studies used? What is a psychobiography? 7. What is archival research? What are the major sources of archival data? 8. What is content analysis?
Naturalistic observation is a commonly used research method used by psychologists and other scientists in social platform. Naturalistic observation is a technique that involves observation of subjects in natural environments. This technique is mostly used in areas where doing laboratory research is not necessary and cost is not required or would interfere with the information. Unlike structured observation, naturalistic observation technique entails observing a behavior as it happens in its natural sense without any interference from the researcher. This technique is advantageous in the sense that, it allows direct observation of a behavior by a researcher as it occurs. Also naturalistic observation method allows the study that cannot be done in laboratories due to ethical reasons. A good example is that one cannot study the impacts of imprisonment by confining the subjects. The only way is to gather information from the prison through naturalistic observation technique (Wertz, 2011).
There are several methods used when collecting data using a naturalistic observation technique. Observers use tallying counts by writing down when and how often some behaviors occur. Another technique utilized in data collection is by use of observer narratives method. This involves taking notes when observing then go back later and try to get data and differentiate behavioral patterns from the notes. Depending on the kind of behavior being studied, the observer may choose to record audio or video tapes during each session (Wertz, 2011).
The data in naturalistic observation is mainly qualitative because it is a description of real observations instead of statistical quantitative summaries. The main purpose of naturalistic observation is to give accurate description and interpretation. The researcher has a responsibility of describing the setting, events and individuals observed. At the end, Researcher analyzes observed behavior and gives detailed information of the data collected. Naturalistic observation is primarily qualitative because the researcher gets the data from the field where the subjects are affected directly by the topic under study. Researchers personally get the data from different sources such as; studying documents, observation of behavior and conducting interviews. On the other hand, researchers collect data forms through interviews and observation of behaviors of subjects, recording both audio and video tapes. All this leads to naturalistic observation technique. This technique is a non-experimental, mainly qualitative research technique in which items are researched in their environmental setting. Behaviors of interest are studied and recorded by the researcher. This method is mostly used during the starting stages of the research project. Therefore, naturalistic observation technique is a qualitative study method utilized in research data collection (Goodwin, 2010).
Participant observation takes on an active role;it includes direct participation in lives of individuals being researched, this technique lowers the individual’s role where he or she observes. Participant observation should be well understood in the field. A big issue affecting participant observation is that observers might lose the main objective to conduct the study. This is opposed to non-participant observation whereby the observer does not take an active role during the study. Participant observation does not only show site and writing content down, on the otherhand, it is a complicated method that involves various components. One of the things a researcher or a person conducting the study should do after choosing to perform a participant observation to collect data. He or she should choose what kind of observer should be selected.(Wertz, 2011).
Participant observation has several disadvantages, some of which have a direct impact on the outcome. The recorded audio or video about a group of individuals is not always of full description. Since this is due to selective basis of any kind of recorded data process: it is greatly affected by researchers’personal life depending on what is of importance and relevance. The researchers’ point of view greatly influences how the data is interpreted and evaluated (Goodwin, 2010).
On the other hand, non-participant observation has less interaction with the individual or subject one observes. The recording of both audio and video tapes is a good choice in this technique. Non-participant observation conducts a concealed study. In this technique, the subject being studied is unaware of the research being carried on them. This technique is highly preferred in conducting research; this is because the behavior of the subject will not affect the person conducting the study. However, ethically non-concealed observation is mostly preferred to some groups of individuals. Participant observation is recommended due to reasons that one does not have to hide themselves from the individuals in order to collect data.
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource
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Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!