Assignment: Robert Rescorla’s Classical Conditioning
A famous experiment conducted by _____ showed that children are more likely to be _____ if this behavior is modeled for them.
a. Watson; nice
b. Skinner; well-behaved
c. Bandura; aggressive
d. Thorndike; afraid
A major problem with cramming for an exam is that it overloads the capacity of _____
b. short-term memory.
c. long-term memory.
d. sensory memory.
A test is said to be reliable if _____
a. a person’s score on a test is pretty much the same every time he or she takes it.
b. it contains an adequate sample of the skills it is supposed to measure.
c. its results agree with a more direct measure of what the test is designed to predict.
d. it is culture-fair.
According to Robert Sternberg, _____ intelligence refers to the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving. This is the type of intelligence that is measured by intelligence tests and academic achievement tests.
Another example of the power of classical conditioning occurs when _____
a. a child is given a treat for finishing chores and increases that behavior.
b. we learn a skill by watching someone else, which makes our mirror neurons fire.
c. the neighborhood where we got high makes us crave the drug.
d. we teach our dog to sit by using rewards.
As 3-year-old Angelo eats his bagel, he accidentally breaks it in half. He then says to his mom, “Uh oh, the bagel gone. I go get another.” Angelo is in the _____ stage of cognitive development.
a. formal operations
c. hypothetico-deductive reasoning
As 3-year-old Luca is learning to count to ten, his parents notice he always remembers one, two, three easily and then nine, ten easily. However, he often skips or mixes up the numbers in the middle. This example demonstrates _____
a. the serial position effect.
b. severe problems in metacognition.
c. only the primacy effect.
d. only the recency effect.
Benny is throwing rocks at a neighbor’s house. Just as Trisha picks up a rock and is about to throw it, the neighbor comes out and yells at Benny. Trisha quickly decides not to throw the rock. What has she just demonstrated?
a. the elicitation effect
b. the disinhibitory effect
c. the insight effect
d. the inhibitory effect
Benson, a black lab, had learned to associate two stimuli with getting taken for a walk, his owner getting out his leash, and his owner getting out a belt. Every time his owner picked up his belt, Benson would jump around and get excited. His owner wanted Benson to stop that so he repeatedly took out his belt without taking Benson for a walk, and always took him for a walk when getting out his leash. He was teaching Benson to _____
d. learn preferentially.
Billy taught two rats how to play basketball for his experimental psychology class. What process did he likely use?
a. operant conditioning
Robert Rescorla’s Classical Conditioning
Children and adolescents are often enticed into drug use, drinking and sexual behavior by observing these behaviors amongst their friends and acquaintances. Being influenced to exhibit behaviors that one has previously learned to suppress is called the _____
a. elicitation effect.
b. inhibitory effect.
c. disinhibitory effect.
d. vicarious impact effect.
Declarative memory is to explicit memory as short-term memory is to _____
a. semantic memory.
b. working memory.
c. nondeclarative memory.
d. episodic memory.
Dora just gave birth to her first child. She wants her daughter to grow up to be happy, self-reliant, assertive, socially skilled, and responsible. Based on Baumrind’s research, which parenting style should Dora practice from this moment on?
a. permissive type
b. independent type
c. authoritative type
d. indulgent type
Douglas was shown a painting for a few moments, and then was asked to jot down as many details regarding the painting as he could remember. As he began writing, he was surprised to learn that although he remembered what the painting was, he had trouble recalling the details and seemed to lose them within a few seconds. Based on this information, the original information was likely stored in his _____ memory.
Dustin is a child who never seems to eat or sleep on a schedule. He is described as an “intense” kid by his parents and is often irritable. Based on this information, what type of temperament does Dustin likely have?
Every time 18-month-old Shayla tried to feed herself, her nanny would tell her to stop and wipe up the mess she had made. Her nanny would then proceed to feed her so the high chair wouldn’t get dirty. Which stage of psychosocial development will Shayla likely unsuccessfully resolve?
a. basic trust vs. mistrust
b. intimacy vs. isolation
c. generativity vs. stagnation
d. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Gabriel is a 16-month-old boy who lives with his mom and grandma. He calls his mom “Mama” and his grandma “Nona.” Last week, Gabriel was at the grocery store with his mom and saw a little lady with white hair and glasses that looked similar to his grandma. He immediately called her “Nona.” Gabriel demonstrated _____
a. an underextension error.
b. a misuse of telegraphic speech.
c. an overextension error.
d. a phonemic error.
Gertrude is a nervous child. She tends to withdraw from other children and family members. However, if given enough time, Gertrude slowly adapts to new situations, people, and environments. Based on this information, what type of temperament does Gertrude likely have?
Giuseppe cannot remember exactly what happened at the wedding he attended a while ago, but he knows that the reception followed the ceremony. He also knows that at the reception, there was a large guest list, great food, and lots of dancing. Giuseppe is using _____ to help him reconstruct his memory for the event.
d. a schema
In order for behavior modification to work, the behavior must be _____ and _____
a. aversive; changeable.
b. reinforceable; conditionable.
c. observable; measurable.
d. subjective; qualitative.
In terms of classical conditioning, which element of the process did Robert Rescorla argue was the most important?
a. the timing between the pairing of the stimuli
b. the reward that came after the stimulus
c. the predictive value of the unconditioned stimulus
d. the repeated pairing of the unconditioned and conditioned stimuli
In the “Little Albert” study, the fear-producing stimulus used as an unconditioned stimulus was the _____.
a. white rat
b. loud noise
c. fear of the rat
d. fear of the noise
Learning that occurs, but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change, is called _____
b. innate learning.
c. vicarious learning.
d. latent learning.
Long-term memories are usually stored in _____ form.
Long-term memory is broken down into _____ and _____
a. declarative memory; nondeclarative memory.
b. iconic memory; echoic memory.
c. working memory; short-term memory.
d. implicit memory; sensory memory.
Robert Rescorla’s Classical Conditioning
Lucille remembers the day she won the lottery like it was yesterday. She was at the gas station filling up her car and decided to check the lottery ticket she had purchased the day before. When the gas station attendant scanned it, he looked at her with a huge smile and then told her to get ready for some fantastic news. The memory of this event is located in Lucille’s _____
a. episodic memory.
b. nondeclarative memory.
c. sensory memory.
d. short-term memory.
Melanie is asked the question, “What if humans never had hands or feet?” Though she knows most humans do have hands and feet, she says, “Well, I guess we wouldn’t have the need for shoes or gloves anymore. Hmmm…I suppose it might be really difficult for humans to keep their balance if they didn’t have feet.” According to Piaget, in what stage is Melanie?
c. formal operations
d. concrete operations
Michael grows up in a home where his father is generally unloving toward his mother. He observes his father yell and degrade his mother, and he notices that his mother never resists this treatment. Based on the work of Bandura, what might we predict about Michael’s own relationships when he is older?
a. Michael will probably treat women very well, as he rebels against the behaviors he saw in his father.
b. Michael may treat women with discourtesy and disrespect, as he repeats the behavior he saw in his father.
c. Michael will probably have no relationships with women, as his father has taught him that relationships are not worth having.
d. Michael will always be very distant from his father, as he has learned that his father does not care about anyone but himself.
Most of the children in the New York Longitudinal Study, which was started in 1956, displayed a No _____
a. insecure attachment.
b. easy temperament.
c. secure attachment.
d. slow-to-warm-up temperament.
Of the following researchers, who would be most interested in moral development?
a. Erik Erikson
b. Lawrence Kohlberg
c. Sigmund Freud
d. Harry Harlow
One day Oliver was sitting with his friend as they were discussing how long they have been friends. As they counted back, Oliver said, “Oh, I remember. We met in the third grade at recess time.” As he and his friend reminisced, Oliver came to the conclusion that because he hadn’t thought about the third grade in so many years, he could not remember who their teacher was. In fact, he could not remember anything about his teacher. What is Oliver likely experiencing?
a. consolidation failure
b. interference failure
c. memory decay
d. anterograde amnesia
Pavlov and Watson believed the critical element in classical conditioning was the _____ of stimuli; Rescorla believed it was how well the conditioned stimulus made it possible to _____
a. expectancy; remember the consequences.
b. pairing; make good predictions.
c. strength; repeat the pairing.
d. aversiveness; escape.
Rescorla provided evidence that supported his theory by _____
a. examining the brains of his rat subjects in a conditioning experiment.
b. presenting a conditioned stimulus with and without the unconditioned stimulus.
c. pairing conditioned and unconditioned stimuli only once.
d. pairing the unconditioned stimulus with several neutral stimuli.
Sensory memory holds information from the senses for a period of time ranging from _____ to _____
a. a fraction of a second; two seconds.
b. two seconds; ten seconds.
c. a fraction of a second; ten seconds.
d. a fraction of a minute; two minutes.
Sixteen-month-old Nina cries and appears distressed when her parents leave her with the babysitter she has known since she was born. Nina is demonstrating _____
a. temperamental issues.
b. stranger anxiety.
c. an avoidant attachment.
d. separation anxiety.
Sixteen-year-old Andre was helping his parents clean the windows. Unfortunately, one of the panes of glass nearby fell out of the window opening and left a cut on Andre’s nose as he caught it. Andre is upset because now he is convinced his classmates will notice it and poke fun of him at school. Which of the following concepts best underlies Andre’s thinking?
a. the imaginary audience
c. naïve idealism
d. the personal fable
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.
I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.
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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!