Assignment: PICOT Recycling Drugs

Assignment: PICOT Recycling Drugs

Assignment: PICOT Recycling Drugs


Section 2: Write your PICOT question below using the words listed above.
PICOT In families who need medication refill, does recycling drugs in nursing homes result in reduction in cost of medications when compared to non-recycling within a period of six months?

Section 3: Use your PICOT to develop a formalized problem statement. Use the example below to help formulate your problem statement.
As you move through the program, you will be building your project based on the PICOT question. Your problem statement, purpose statement, and clinical question(s) will be derived from the PICOT, though they are formatted differently. Use the instructions below as an initial exercise in visualizing how your problem and purpose statements might look. Read the instructions and then develop your problem and purpose statements in the designated fields below each instruction field
Problem Statement Format Instructions A well-written problem statement begins with the big picture of the issue (macro) and works to the small, narrower and more specific problem (micro). It clearly communicates the significance, magnitude, and importance of the problem and transitions into the Purpose of the Project with a declarative statement such as “It is not known if and to what degree/extent…” or “It is not known how/why and…”.
Other examples are:
While the literature indicates ____________, it is not known in _________. (organization/community) if __________.
It is not known how or to what extent ________________.

Problem Statement Medication wastage in the form of unused drugs is one of the challenges facing the health care organizations in the modern world. It is estimated that unused drugs cost states such as the US and UK about $5 billion on annual basis (Bekker et al., 2019). The high cost of unused medications is also transferred to the patients and their families. While wastages are reported, it does not result in the reduction of cost of medications for the patients and their families seeking care in health institutions. As shown by Bekker et al. (2017), families and patients continue to incur huge costs in acquiring medications due to the introduction of new and expensive drugs. Recycling drugs is one of the ways in which the issue of high cost of medications incurred by patients and families

Assignment PICOT Recycling Drugs
Assignment PICOT Recycling Drugs

can be solved. According to Bekker et al. (2019) and Toh and Chew (2017), recycling or re-dispensing unused medications could result in optimization of the use of healthcare resources. It could also lower the cost of purchasing the drugs since the purchasing cost by pharmacies and health organizations is reduced. According to Bekker et al. (2017), the reduction in healthcare budget with recycling of medications could lead to a substantial decline in the cost of medicines. While recycling promises to reduce the cost of drugs incurred by patients and their families, little has been done to determine its effectiveness in reducing costs incurred by these stakeholders (Bekker et al., 2017). Similarly, the existing evidence on the use of recycling of medications has largely focused on pharmacies and health organizations. Scarcity in evidence obtained from stakeholders such as the patients and their families exist (Bekker et al., 2019). Consequently, it is essential that a study focusing on the perception of the patients and families on the impacts of re-dispensing drugs on cost should be obtained to bridge the existing gap in evidence.

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Section 4: Based on your PICOT, create a declarative purpose statement. Use the example below as a reference.
Purpose Statement Format Instructions “The purpose of this project is….” Included in this statement are also the project design, population, variables (quantitative) to be studied, and the geographic location.

Creswell (2003) provided some sample templates for developing purpose statements aligned with the different project methods as follows:

The purpose of this quantitative ___________ (correlational, descriptive, etc.) project is to ____________ (compare or see to what degree a relationship exists) between/among ______________________ (independent variable) to ___________________ (dependent variable) for ________________ (participants) at ___________________ (project site/geographical location). The ________ (independent variable) will be defined/measured as/by _______ (provide a general definition). The (dependent variable) will be defined/measured as/by ______ (provide a general definition).

Purpose Statement The purpose of this quantitative descriptive project is to compare the cost of medications incurred by patients and their families when medications are re-dispensed and not re-dispensed in nursing homes in our state. The dependent variable will be measured by determining cost incurred in procuring drugs by the patients and their families while independent variable will be determined by re-dispensing or not re-dispensing drugs.

Assignment: PICOT Recycling Drugs

PICOT Selection Guidelines
P Population  Choose a population that you have access to through your chosen site.
 Avoid directly sampling a vulnerable population. If your project involves a vulnerable population, consider how else you might impact care delivery without including the vulnerable population in the direct design of your project.
 Make sure you can link the population to a direct practice improvement that can be measured through patient and practice outcomes.
 Ensure you are specific enough that the inclusion and exclusion criteria are evident.

I Intervention  Remember, your intervention must be based on a sufficient amount of evidence. Do not base education, interventions, or practices on a concept that is not well-supported in literature. You are to translate existing knowledge into practice through your application of the intervention.
 Look for valid and reliable tools for your intervention. Developing programs and instruments is a lengthy process that requires measures for validation. Seek to use programs and tools for which you can gain permission, permission to modify, or have built in-permissions.
 Be sure your intervention feasible. Will it create a financial burden on you? Will you be able to get buy-in from the site?

C Comparison  Determine how you can compare your intervention to a lack of the intervention or standard of care.
 Ensure you are able to measure what happens when you introduce your intervention as compared to when it is not introduced or before it was introduced.
O Outcome  Determine if your patient or population outcome can be objectively measured.
 Select an established, valid, and reliable tool for measurement.
T Timeline  Determine if you can complete the project in a meaningful way without a lengthy implementation and data collection period.
D Digital data  Does your pre-intervention data and post-intervention data measure the results of your intervention?
 Please ensure your data evaluates the results of the intervention.

Evidence-Based PICOT Question
Consider an advanced practice nursing care problem or issue related to your intended DPI Project. Conduct a search in the GCU Library using CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI), OVID, or Sage Research Methods databases to find appropriate empirical resources regarding applicable nursing intervention research.
Utilizing your feedback, you have received on your draft PICOT question from Topic 2 DQ1, create a draft PICOT question specifically related to your project. This PICOT will be revised and in Topic 8 will be submitted for review by the college.
Use the “PICOT Decision Pathway,” located in the DC Network, to determine if your PICOT question is appropriate and can be supported with substantial research.
Using the “PICOT Question Template,” located in the DC Network, formulate an EBP PICOT question that pertains to your project focus.
In addition to your evidence-based practice PICOT question, prepare a brief summary of your topic. Include a rationale for why you have selected this topic and why you believe it is in line with the PICOT selection guidelines. If you have selected a route that advises caution on the “PICOT Decision Pathway” explain how you think you might mitigate complications that could occur to ensure you are able to successfully accomplish your project in a timely manner.

My PICOT is about recycling drugs. Recycling with that can help or assist many family who cannot afford medication due the high of medication.
Many Nursing home today do not recycle medication.
Recycling medications in the United States have been estimated of $2 billion per year, exceeding the actual market value of the medication. This cost can be recycled back to million of our senior and families that can not afford the cost medication.
Law maker and Pharmacists can make an important impact on drug waste prevention by identifying various opportunities for intervention directed at medication prescribing, dispensing, monitoring, and destruction. If health care can Networking with Pharmacy and Nursing Home this will be a started to investigate an on- going problems how we waste and disposal of medications.

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