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Assignment PHI 413V Applying Four Principles Case Study

Assignment: PHI 413V Applying Four Principles Case Study

PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care weekly assignments

Ethical and spiritual decision making in health care

Part 1: Explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care

Christianity offers a religious perspective on the nature of ethics and spirituality. It contends that spirituality is the religious and theological prism that explains the notion of God in terms of who, what and how. God is perceived as the eternal and all-powerful being above everything and everyone. With the understanding of God as a concept, Christians have developed belief systems that are presented in the Bible. These belief systems explain the purpose of human life, and the truth as well as the meaning of life. With this awareness, humans can pursue and achieve a transcendent state for all life experiences. This means that even as humans make choices about life, spirituality ensures that they remaining grounded in following God’s guidance. In addition, it makes Christian more accepting of life since there is the acceptance that God guides all fate and anything that happens must have been permitted by God, whether good or bad. As such, spirituality takes on theological and symbolic functions (Igboin, 2015). Besides that, Christians view ethics as making a decision based on God’s instructions as presented in the Bible. They rely on spirituality to conform to God’s expectation without room for ambiguity. The Christian perspective of spirituality and ethics have implications for health care through guiding with decision-making by setting boundaries for accepting choices/options when making decisions. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care weekly assignments. They are particularly focused on lessening human suffering, augmenting wellbeing, and restoring life (Igboin, 2015).

Postmodern relativism presents a more liberal understanding of spirituality, arguing that there is no absolute truth. It is ambiguous when arguing that God may or may not exist with either one of the options being a possibility. Similarly, with regards to ethics, postmodern relativism contents that contrasting ethical arguments could be valid or invalid with no absolute truth. The implication is that no single argument should be discarded simply because it is contradictory. The postmodern relativism perspective is particularly useful to health care since it supports multicultural care delivery through accepting diversity. With this awareness, medical personnel would acknowledge that they do not have a monopoly on the truth about spirituality and ethics, and that obscure cultures should not be ignored (Zavada, 2019).

Part 2: Explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it

Scientism contends that hard sciences are the only true source of absolute truths and genuine knowledge thus positioning them to offer superior scientific knowledge. It identifies hard sciences as the subjects relying on experimentation and laws of nature to include physics, biology and physics. The hard sciences rely on factual, replicable and testable data thus making their results reliable. Unlike hard sciences, soft sciences are considered as pseudosciences that present guesses and conjectures that are subject to change that may not be replicable thus making them inferior to hard science. The distinction between hard and soft sciences is based on the perceived value of the information they provide. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care weekly assignments. Hard sciences offer more valuable information since they rely on objective skepticism, experimentation, and falsification to offer explanatory principles. On the other hand, soft sciences rely on subjectivism thereby presenting opportunities for influences from human nature such that it is not uncommon to have contrasting ideas for the same principle (Moreland, 2018). In this respect, scientism identifies hard sciences as having greater intellectual authority over real knowledge when compared to soft sciences.

There are two main arguments offered against scientism. Firstly, hard sciences do not offer absolute truths and facts since they are restructured by the current understanding of the environment and measuring instruments. Things that were previously thought of as absolute truths in hard sciences are not subject to change as new information is presented. This means that information presented by both soft and hard sciences are subject to change over time. Secondly, hard sciences have adopted a tyrannical approach that is over-reliant on rationalism while disregarding personal opinion. These tyrannical approaches end up stifling willful thought that is important for discovering new information, and yet this is important for advancing science. Soft sciences have adopted a more accepting approach that allows for willful thought (Briggs, 2019). PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care weekly assignments.

Part 3.

(a) What is ultimate reality?

Ultimate reality is the belief that every individual is the product of interactions with the environment. I am the product of nurture, and my environment determines how I develop into a person. My family, neighborhood, community, city, state, government and other environmental factors have all influenced my development through determining my values, mannerism and thought processes. For instance, I would be more accepting of polygamy if I were a Muslim and less accepting if I were a Christian since the two religious principles differ on their perceptions of number of partners in a valid marriage. As such, ultimate reality looks at how experience affects reasons as well as decision-making and life perceptions.

(b) What is the nature of the universe?

The nature of the universe is that it is always experiencing change with the most basic change being time. The universe relies on energy to drive the change with the extent and direction of change relying on the prioritization processes determined by competition, extinction, evolution, and energy conversion. Competition involves struggle to acquire the scarce energy resources. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care weekly assignments. Extinction involves removal of components that are unable to compete either through direct competition or disaster events. Evolution involves adapting to environmental changes that allow for a better fit. Energy conversion involves changes between the different forms of energy that begins with solar energy being captured by plants.

(c) What is a human being?

A human being can be defined from two perspectives. The first definition is from the religious perspective that identifies God as the creator of human beings. The Christian story of creation advances that humans were created by God in his image with the intention of them to procreate and do his will that includes taking care of other creations and following the Ten Commandments. The second definition is from the biological perspective that identifies humans as products of evolution who have selectively adapted to develop higher thought processes that allows them to adapt the environment to their needs. The higher thought process has allowed humans to develop complex languages and vocabulary, technology and clothes that allow them to use the environment beyond their physical capabilities. PHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care weekly assignments.

(d) What is knowledge?

Knowledge refers to the unique sets of facts, information, and skills that an individual cognitively acquires through experience and education. Experience involves practice to familiarize with knowledge while education involves attending formal and informal processes to acquire theoretical knowledge. Knowledge allows individuals to have capacity thought processes. For instance, an individual knowledgeable in engineering is able to successfully manage a construction project while an individual knowledgeable in medicine is able to diagnose and treat ailments.

(e) What is your basis of ethics?

My perception of ethics is based on two concepts. The first concept is personal opinion, beliefs and awareness to determine moral right and wrong. This is based on what the environment has taught me. For instance, I personally believe that every person should do honest work to earn a living, and that stealing is wrong. Regardless of my environment and laws, I would find it difficult to steal. The second concept is public principles and beliefs. Although I may have personal beliefs, they may not necessarily match the public beliefs that are determined through public discussions and consensus. For instance, there are ethical principles on how to handle private information within the professional environment, and regardless of my personal beliefs, I am expected to follow the principles. The two concepts interact to determine how I handle ethical situations.

(f) What is the purpose of your existence?

I have two purposes for existing. My first purpose is to procreate and bring up future generations. This includes getting married, having children, working to earn money, and meeting the needs of my family. Also, it includes taking care of my environment so that my future generations do not suffer for my mistakes. My second purpose is to fulfil God’s will through observing religious principles such as observing the Ten Commandments, and acting in good conscious. I believe that I was created by God to serve, and I only have value for as long as I serve.  As such, my purpose is to procreate, present a better world for future generations, and fulfil God’s will.

References

Briggs, W. (2019). In opposition to scientism. Retrieved from https://wmbriggs.com/post/26885/

Igboin, B. (2015). Spirituality and medical practice: a Christian perspective. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 12(4). DOI: 10.20529/IJME.2015.054. Retrieved from http://ijme.in/articles/spirituality-and-medical-practice-a-christian-perspective/?galley=htmlPHI-413V Ethical and Spiritual Decision Making in Health Care weekly assignments

Moreland, J. (2018). What is scientism? Retrieved from https://www.crossway.org/articles/what-is-scientism/

Zavada, J. (2019). Postmodernism definition. Retrieved from https://www.learnreligions.com/what-is-postmodernism-700692

 

Assignment PHI 413V Applying Four Principles Case Study

Assignment PHI 413V Applying Four Principles Case Study

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Course Code Class Code Assignment Title Total Points
PHI-413V PHI-413V-O503 Case Study on Death and Dying 200.0
Criteria Percentage Unsatisfactory (0.00%) Less than Satisfactory (65.00%) Satisfactory (75.00%) Good (85.00%) Excellent (100.00%)
Content 70.0%
Suffering and Fallenness of the World 12.0% Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the fallenness of the world is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.
Suffering and the Hope of Resurrection 12.0% Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the man would interpret his suffering in light of the Christian narrative and the hope of resurrection is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.
Value of Life 12.0% Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Analysis of how the Christian worldview of the man might inform his view about the value of his life as a person with ALS is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.
Euthanasia 12.0% Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which values and considerations the Christian worldview focuses on when deliberating the option of euthanasia for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.
Morally Justified Options 12.0% Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is insufficient or not supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is unclear or vaguely supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and skillfully supported by topic study materials. Evaluation of which options would be justified in the Christian worldview for the man is clear and demonstrates a deep understanding that is skillfully supported by topic study materials.
Personal Decision 10.0% Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is insufficient. Reflection hypothesis of which choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is lacking a personal connection. Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear. Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be made if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear and thoughtful. Reflection hypothesis of which personal choices would be make if faced with ALS based on personal worldview is clear, relevant, and insightful.
Organization, Effectiveness, and Format 30.0%
Thesis Development and Purpose 7.0% Paper lacks any discernible overall purpose or organizing claim. Thesis is insufficiently developed or vague. Purpose is not clear. Thesis is apparent and appropriate to purpose. Thesis is clear and forecasts the development of the paper. Thesis is descriptive and reflective of the arguments and appropriate to the purpose. Thesis is comprehensive and contains the essence of the paper. Thesis statement makes the purpose of the paper clear.
Argument Logic and Construction 8.0% Statement of purpose is not justified by the conclusion. The conclusion does not support the claim made. Argument is incoherent and uses noncredible sources. Sufficient justification of claims is lacking. Argument lacks consistent unity. There are obvious flaws in the logic. Some sources have questionable credibility. Argument is orderly, but may have a few inconsistencies. The argument presents minimal justification of claims. Argument logically, but not thoroughly, supports the purpose. Sources used are credible. Introduction and conclusion bracket the thesis. Argument shows logical progression. Techniques of argumentation are evident. There is a smooth progression of claims from introduction to conclusion. Most sources are authoritative. Clear and convincing argument presents a persuasive claim in a distinctive and compelling manner. All sources are authoritative.
Mechanics of Writing  (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) 5.0% Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.
Paper Format  (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) 5.0% Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent. Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct.
Documentation of Sources (citations, footnotes, references, bibliography, etc., as appropriate to assignment and style) 5.0% Sources are not documented. Documentation of sources is inconsistent and/or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.
Total Weightage 100%

Topic 1 DQ 2

What aspects of the topic readings do you find the most interesting? What is your view of the analysis of disease and healing in the readings? Explain.

REPLY TO DISCUSSION

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What aspects of the topic readings do you find the most interesting? What is your view of the analysis of disease and healing in the readings? Explain.

With this week’s topics, I found the scientism a very interesting topic. Scientism is a new topic that was just introduced to me this week. Bogue (2020), broke scientism down as the view that science is the best and way to know things about the world. Meaning that in order to know something, one must assess it only through the methods of science. Science helps a person to learn about the reasons for something to happen. In my line of work, we send off for pathologies all the time to find out if a woman has cervical or uterine cancer. We also do labs on pregnant patients to rule out any disease or illness that may occur during the pregnancy (i.e., cholestasis, gestational hypertensin, gestational diabetes), these help the providers to determine whether or not a patient should deliver early or continue the pregnancy for 40 weeks. The providers make the recommendation usually to deliver early based on lab values, however we do have a few of our patients that will leave it up to God on the delivery timing. Another amazing example that I have about the difference of scientism vs Christianity, a friend of mine was told to abort her baby due to having a high chance of Down Syndrome and very little amniotic fluid around 20 weeks, she and her husband went home and prayed to God to help their baby girl survive and for the strength to accept any illness that may come with the baby she was pregnant with. When she went in for another ultrasound a week later, the fluid was at a normal level and the baby was perfectly healthy. The providers said it was a medical miracle. That little girl is not 9 years old and does not have Down Syndrome. I like to believe that this was not a medical miracle, but the works of God in healing the pregnancy and allowing her to have a healthy baby girl after multiple miscarriages.

 

 

Bouge, D.W. & Hogan, M. (2020). Foundational issues in Christian spirituality and ethics. Practicing Dignity: An Introduction to Christian Values and Decision Making in Health Care. https://lc.gcumedia.com/phi413v/practicing-dignity-an-introduction-to-christian-values-and-decision-making-in-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/1

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Scientism is a philosophy of what can or cannot be known and it claims that whatever is not properly scientific cannot be known or it does not exist so that it could be known. It holds belief that the only way to know about anything is to know them scientifically therefore science ia a good and powerful way of coming to knowledge of the world. Scientism cannot be proven to be true through science itself, rendering it incomplete at best (conservapedia.com).

Reference

Scientism : https://www.conservapedia.com/scientism

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Scientism was very interesting topic for me as well.

Scientism is an ideology that expresses science as the only objective means by which society should determine their decisions. Scientism attempts to take scientific principles and values to political and anthropological concerns where they may not necessarily apply.

Scientism takes this forward to claim that we are alone in the universe.

“We can be proud as a species because, having discovered that we are alone, we owe the gods very little.” –E.O. Wilson, Consilience

This statement draws from scientific evidence and expands it into philosophical realms beyond the scope of scientific inquiry.

Thus, where science stops at testable statements, scientism expands into more anthropological contexts, which cannot be conclusively proven by citing scientific evidence.

 

Personal Worldview Inventory

Shared by cultures, composed of assumptions, categories and values that provide a lens to view the world is what is known as “world view”. Due to diverse perspectives, every person’s way of viewing the world is unique. Any person’s world view is heavily influenced by spirituality. The concepts which had been yielded by scientism and postmodernism had always been hindered due to spiritual means followed by the patients and doctors in domains of healthcare.

 

Philosophical Concepts and Spirituality

The connection of a person to others and life is what many consider “Spirituality”. It is a connection between souls and spirits. Existing in various forms spirituality can decrease morality, increase coping skills and increase recovery at times.

Due to concepts of “postmodernism” and “scientism”, spirituality has been excluded from healthcare and nursing. “Scientism” is the mere concept that through science if one doesn’t obtain knowledge than it is not real. Similar to relativism is “postmodernism”. It rejects all claims of absolute knowledge, role of reason, and rationality in science (Taylor, 2014). Truth is in accordance to perception is what is stated by postmodernism.

Spiritualism has been subdued by these concepts because no room has been left for pluralism and the acceptance of diversity in beliefs. However “scientism” and “postmodernism” fail to capture the essence of human life because they lack ethical reasoning.

 

What is prime reality?

God is what “prime reality” is. Albeit the fact that human lives are changing, being made easier and life spans are increasing due to advancement in human technology, God is still the “Creator” and “Controller” of everything. Every life event takes place upon Gods consent, although people might credit the numerous resources and their fate for the blessings and curse they have in their life. The faith that every is in the hands of God is growing less common day by day as humans are advancing in science, arts and media. They think that they can bend life and fate the way they want to.

 

What is the nature of the world around you?

The perspective of an individual determines the nature of the world around us. Some people think they have a peaceful life, some think of it as chaotic while others refer to it as isolated. Everybody has the same world around them but what changes their thoughts and perspective are the life events and challenges they face. All of those situations whether negative or positive mold an individual’s perspective on the nature of the world around us.

 

What is a human being?

This questions has many possible answers. A human being is the creation of God, with Gods essence present in it. Though God is the creator of a human but human itself is the creator of many things. Ruling the earth by a weapon, its mind, a human being is the most powerful being on earth. By abusing the power of mind, many wars have been waged by humans. A human is unpredictable, they can go from being kind and gentle to the most cruel and ruthless being ever in existence. A human is a machine with a limited life span and ability to reproduce. It is a predator which dwells on power and an animal which does anything for its survival.

 

What happens to a person at death?

A person is transferred from one realm to another after death. They are not considered dead, only their soul leaves the body and goes to another world unknown to man. The person’s temporary voyage at earth ends and an eternal life starts to reap the fruit of good deeds and also a person is held accountable for their sins. (Echert, 2017). Material things are all left behind on earth, the only possession a person is allowed to take with him is his deeds which help pursue a peaceful eternal life. However, when a person departs from earth after death, loved ones, wealth everything else is left behind and the person moves on to another world. Death is inevitable, every person will die someday whether they want to or not.

 

Why is it possible to know anything at all?

Human beings are created to be a know it all. Their mind and their instincts keep them up to date on worldly affairs. By discovering Mother Nature and making advancements in science human beings are becoming superior than they ever were. Every possible technique that can be used to exploit and reap maximum benefits of Mother Nature has been unveiled (Ratanakul, 2008). God has made human a very curious creature, their purpose is to solve the mysteries of the world. Without curiosity and determination to learn new things, a human appears to be incomplete.

 

How do people know what is right or wrong?

On the basis of religion, rules, regulations and teachings imposed by it, a person discriminates right from wrong. For example, some religions forbid and declare it a sin to expose body, even the hair to any person, whereas some religions teach to embrace the body and exposing body isn’t considered a sin. Followers of one religion might criticize the followers of another religion because of conflicting beliefs and practices. In the same way, worshipping God is done in many different ways according to every religion. There might appear a lot of unethical ways to worship God but for the believers of that religion that practice is right because they are only doing which has been taught by their religion. (Hardy, 2006).

 

What is the meaning of human history?

The emergence of God, the creation of mankind and the evolution of mankind from dark ages to this whole new era is what is known as the “human history”. Human history is the record of human achievements and how each and every secret of the world has been unveiled so far. Humans have brought the world to a point where every other things is dependent on their mercy for its survival.

Conclusion

Worldview” varies according to every person. Everybody’s view is shaped by their beliefs and religion. Many believe in spirituality but others believe in postmodernism and scientism. There can be a world where all of these concepts can co-exist. In this world, God is the prime reality. He made humans and all of them have a different perspective and a lens to view the world they live in. Humans evolved from the dark ages to this new era where countless things are being unveiled every single moment. But all of this life has an end and that’s death. Every individual has a specific lifespan. All of it will come to an end and each person will be rewarded or punished according to the deeds they’ve done.

Bibliography:

Echert, J. (2017). What Happens to a Person After Death? Retrieved from:

http://www.ewtn.com/v/experts/showmessage.asp?number=340085

Hardy, J. (2016). Human Nature and the Purpose of Existence.  Retrieved from:

http://www.patheos.com/Library/Buddhism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence

Ratanakul, P. (2008). Health, Disease, and Healing: The Buddhist Contribution. Dharma World Magazine.  Retrieved from:

http://www.rk-world.org/dharmaworld/dw_2008odhealth.aspx

Taylor M & Taylor R (2014). Is relativism and postmodernism same in seeking our God? Retrieved from:

https://seekingourgod.wordpress.com/2014/08/18/is-relativism-and-postmodernism-the-same/

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