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Assignment: Pathophysiology Assignment Essay
Assignment Pathophysiology Assignment Essay
Which type of infective endocarditis is suggested by the patient\’s clinical manifestations—acute or subacute? Explain your answer.
The patient is likely to be having subacute endocarditis which is caused by bacteria. The condition develops gradually and subtly for weeks. The laboratory tests indicates that the patient is having bacterial infections, the neutrophils and white blood cells are elevated (80% and 19,500/mm3 respectively).
Which three of the illnesses in this patient\’s medical history may be contributing to the onset of infective endocarditis and why are these diseases considered risk factors? Explain each of the factors.
Ineffective endocarditis is commonly caused by the streptococcal and enterococcus bacteria among others. The patient’s history indicates that she had a recent dental procedure where her infected tooth was removed about two weeks ago. The patient was not given antibiotics after the procedure and this could be the factor contributing to her current health issue (Mahabadi, et al., 2021). The second factor is the rheumatic fever history; the patient developed the condition as a child and her mitral valve was replaced 2 years ago. Also, the history of COPD could expose the patient to endocarditis.
What are the six diagnostic modified Duke University criteria that favor a diagnosis of infective endocarditis in this patient? Explain your answer
The six diagnostic modified Duke University criteria appropriate in this case include the pathological criteria based on microorganism and pathological lesions. The others include new vulvular regurgitation, fever, immunological phenomena, vascular pneumonia and oscillating inter-cardiac mass (Mahabadi, et al., 2021). The criteria is appropriate since it helps in differentiating the endocarditis from other health conditions. Also, the culture helps in identifying the micro-organisms involved.
Explain the pathophysiology of proteinuria and hematuria in a patient with infective endocarditis.
Endocarditis causes diffuse glomerulonephritis and the renal infarctions that results in haematuria and proteinuria. The proteinuria is attributed to defects in the renal functioning.
Identify four elevated laboratory test results that are consistent with a diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis. And explain the pathophysiology of the elevated values.
The four elevated values include neutrophilia (80%), leucocytosis (19,500/mm3), ESR (30mm/hr) and band (7%). The elevations in the cells is attributed to the high immunological response to the bacterial pathogens in the body.
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Mr. K.P. is a 71-year-old female, who presents to your office with a 3-day history of more than 103F with chills. The patient reports, \”I
don’t feel well, and I think that I may have the flu.\” He also complains of \”some painful bumps on my fingers and toes that came on last night.\” He denies IVDA. When asked about recent medical or dental procedures, he responds: \”I had an infected tooth removed about 2 weeks ago.\” He does not recall receiving any antibiotics either prior to or after the procedure.
Asthma since childhood
Rheumatic fever as a child x 2 with mitral valve replacement 2 years ago
HTN x 20 years
DM type 2, x 9 years
COPD x 4 years
H/O tobacco abuse
Alcoholic liver disease
Urinalysis: The urine was pale yellow, clear, and negative for proteinuria and hematuria. A urine toxicology screen was also negative.