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Assignment NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain

Assignment: NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain

Post a description of the pathophysiology of acute, chronic, and referred pain, including similarities and differences between them. Then, explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain.

Definition
The International Association for the Study of Pain and the American Pain Society defined pain as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential damage or described in terms of such damage” (IASP, 1994). Acute pain is a protective mechanism that provides a warning that a condition or injury is actively harming the body. It motivates the affected individual to take immediate action in controlling or eradicating the pain.

Acute pain is usually short term lasting less than 3 months. Acute pain is usually tolerable but if left untreated can lead to chronic pain. In contrast to acute pain, chronic pain has lost its ability to warn and protect. It lasts for more than 3 to 6 months. Chronic pain no longer correlates with a causative agent. Chronic pain takes on its own identity and requires special treatment. Referred pain is a type of pain that can be classified as acute or chronic. It is described as being a pain that is distant from the actual point of injury.

NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain

Pathophysiology

Nociceptors are free nerve endings that are located all over the body. The main purpose of these receptors are to respond to damage to the body by transmitting signals to the spinal cord and brain. These transmitted signals are complex in that they carry information about the location and intensity of the painful stimuli. This will allow the brain to fully process the pain, and eventually send communication back to block further pain signals.

Nociceptors are classified by which stimuli they respond to and how fast they transmit pain signals. There are two main types of nerve fibers, A fiber axons and C fiber axons. Due to the difference in transmission speed between A and C fibers, the A fibers reach the spinal cord before the C fibers, as a result of an acute injury, pain is experienced in two phases. When a injury is suffered, Nociceptors activate the A fibers, causing a person to feel a sensation of sharp pain. This pain is not as intense as the pain that comes to follow. The second phase of pain is a result of C fibers being activated. The second phase of pain causes the individual to feel a sensation of an intense, burning pain that persists even after the stimulus has stopped.

Acute pain serves as a protective mechanism to indicate damage to the body. Chronic pain serves no purpose and causes long term suffering to the individual. Chronic pain is thought to be a change in the peripheral and central nervous systems that cause dysregulation of nociception and pain modulation processes. Physiological responses are similar in both acute and chronic pain. Chronic, persistent pain allows for an individual to adapt physiologically and produce a normal blood pressure and heart rate.

Incomplete assignment.

References:

Assignment NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain

Assignment NURS 6521N Pathophysiology of Acute Chronic and Referred Pain

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International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP). IASP pain terminology. [Available at] wwwiaspain.org/AM/Template.cfm?Section=pain_Definitions&;Template=/CM/HTMLDisplay.cfm&ContentIK=1728#Pain [Accessed September 2018].

https://www.change-pain.com/grt-change-pain-portal/change_pain_home/acute_pain/pain_basics/classification/duration/en_EN/318500011.jsp

https://accessmedicine.mhmedical.com/content.aspx?bookid=331&sectionid=40726719

https://www.nursingtimes.net/clinical-archive/pain-management/anatomy-and-physiology-of-pain/1860931.article

https://www.verywellhealth.com/what-are-nociceptors-2564616

https://www.medical.theclinics.com/article/S0025-7125(15)00142-X/pdf

https://www.medical.theclinics.com/article/S0025-7125(15)00142-X/pdfurceful answer.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

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  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

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Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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