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Assignment NURS 6521N – Anemia Pathophysiology

Assignment: NURS 6521N – Anemia Pathophysiology

Anemia

Anemia is a condition that develops when your blood lacks enough healthy red blood cells or hemoglobin (Huether & McCance, 2015). Hemoglobin is a main part of red blood cells and binds oxygen. If there are too few or abnormal red blood cells, or the hemoglobin level is abnormal or low, the cells in your body will get enough oxygen. Symptoms of anemia occur because organs aren’t getting what they need to function properly.

Pernicious Anemia

Pernicious anemia is one of the vitamin B-12 deficiency anemia. It’s caused by an ability to absorb the vitamin B-12 needed for your body to make enough healthy red blood cells. Vitamin B-12 is a nutrient found in some foods. Individuals who have pernicious anemia can’t absorb enough vitamin B-12 from food. It is a megaloblastic anemia resulting from vitamin B-12 deficiency due to lack of intrinsic factor (Toh, 2017). The body needs this nutrient to make healthy red blood cells and to keep its nervous system working properly. When there is a deficit in vitamin B-12, the blood cells don’t divide normally and are too large.

This may cause the red blood cells difficulty with getting out of the bone marrow. When there are not enough red blood cells to carry oxygen to the body, the individual may feel tired and weak. In pernicious anemia, vitamin B-12 is unavailable due to a lack of intrinsic factor. Intrinsic factor is produced by the parietal cells of the stomach and is responsible for intestinal absorption of the vitamin. Intrinsic factor forms a complex with dietary vitamin B-12 in the stomach.

The complex remains intact, preventing degradation of the vitamin by intestinal juices, until it reaches the ileum of the small intestine, where the vitamin is released and absorbed into the body. When intrinsic factor is prevented from binding with vitamin B-12 or when the parietal cells are unable to produce intrinsic factor, the vitamin is not absorbed and pernicious anemia results.

NURS 6521N – Anemia Pathophysiology

Contributing Factors
This effect is thought to stem from an autoimmune reaction in which the malfunctioning immune system produces antibodies against intrinsic factor and against the parietal cells. Pernicious anemia occurs most often in persons over age 30, although a juvenile form of the disease does occur, usually in children younger than 3 years old. The disease shows a familial tendency and is more common in individuals of northern European descent (Pavord, Myers, Allard & Strong, 2012).

Treatment
Treatment involves a monthly intramuscular injection of vitamin B-12 that must be continued for life.

Iron Deficiency Anemia

Iron deficiency is the most common type of anemia, and it occurs you’re your body has a deficit of the mineral, iron. Iron is an important mineral because the body requires it to make hemoglobin (Cafasso & Nall, 2017). When there is not enough iron in the blood stream, the rest of the body cannot get the amount of oxygen it needs.

Pathophysiology

Iron-restricted erythropoiesis indicates that the delivery of iron to erythroid precursors is impaired, no matter how replete the stores (Weiss, 2005). Functional iron deficiency is a state of iron-poor erythropoiesis in which there is insufficient mobilization of iron from stores in the presence of increased demands, as is observed after treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (Thomas, Hinchliffe, Briggs, Macdougall, Littlewood, & Cavill, 2013).

Contributing Factors

Inadequate dietary iron, impaired iron absorption, bleeding, or loss of body iron in the urine may be the cause (Hempel & Bollard, 2016). Dietary habits may also be a contributing factor. In women of childbearing age, the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia is a loss of iron in the blood due to heavy menstruation or pregnancy. A poor diet or certain intestinal diseases that affect how the body absorbs iron can also cause iron deficiency anemia.
Treatment
Doctors normally treat the condition with iron supplements or changes to diet.

References:
Cafasso, J., & Nall, R. (2017). Iron Deficiency Anemia. Healthline. Retrieved October 9, 2018.
Hempel EV, Bollard ER. The Evidence-Based Evaluation of Iron Deficiency Anemia. Med Clin North Am. 2016 Sep. 100 (5):1065-75.
McCance, K. L., & Huether, S. E. (2015). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (6th ed.). Maryland Hieghts, Mo.: Mosby Elsevier.

Assignment NURS 6521N – Anemia Pathophysiology

Assignment NURS 6521N – Anemia Pathophysiology

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Pavord S, Myers B, Robinson S, Allard S, Strong J, UK guidelines on the management of iron deficiency in pregnancy. Br J Haematol 2012;156:588-600
Toh BH. Pathophysiology and laboratory diagnosis of pernicious anemia. Immunol Res. 2017 Feb. 65 (1):326-330.
Weiss G, Goodnough LT. Anemia of chronic disease. N Engl J Med 2005;352:1011-1023

https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204930-overview
https://www.healthline.com/health/pernicious-anemia

https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/understanding-anemia-basics#1
https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/pernicious-anemia
https://www.britannica.com/science/pernicious-anemia

NURS 6521N – Anemia Pathophysiology

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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