Assignment: NURS 504 Health Nursing Question3 -VAERS
Health/Nursing Topic Question 3: VAERS
In 1986, the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act (NCVIA) required the reporting of certain adverse events following routinely recommended vaccines to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. In November 1990, the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) was put in place to assist with the reporting of adverse events. VAERS is managed jointly by the Centers for Disease Control and the Food and Drug Administration. The information collected by the VAERS system is used by vaccine manufacturers as well as government agencies. The information collected into the VAERS system is used to detect vaccine adverse events, monitor increases in adverse events, and determine any patient risk factors for specified types of adverse events (Zhou et al., 2003). Adverse events can be reported by anyone including the patient, vaccine manufacturer, and healthcare professionals. Any adverse event can be reported to the VAERS system. Adverse events are defined as:
…all spontaneous reports of adverse experiences occurring within the United States, whether serious, nonserious, expected or unexpected, and all serious and unexpected adverse experiences occurring outside of the United States or reported in scientific and medical journals as case reports or as the result of formal clinical trials (Zhou, et. al, 2003, pp 2).
Serious events are those which result in “…death, death, life-threatening illness, hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization, or permanent disability” (Zhou et al., 2003, pp 2).
There are two ways to report vaccine adverse effects on the VAERS system. There is an only reporting system where you can type information directly into the webpage to be compiled by the VAERS system. The other way is through a downloadable form which can then be mailed, faxed, or uploaded to VAERS. There are multiple pieces of information included in the reporting system. The personal identifying information is kept confidential. After information is provided to the VAERS system, reporters can be contacted by VAERS staff for further information regarding the patient or adverse event. Information can be provided to the VAERS system without patient consent. Under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, patient information can be released if it is part of a public health activity (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, n.d.).
The Centers for Disease Control and Food and Drug Administration uses the information in VAERS to detect patterns related to certain vaccines. This information is then used to protect the public from dangers related to those vaccines. The VAERS system is in place to keep vaccinations as safe as possible for the public.
The VAERS system was implemented to keep the public safe when receiving vaccinations. The Bible talks about both physical and spiritual safety. God promised to keep his people safe if they followed His commandments. Jesus came to the earth to provide spiritual safety for those who believe in Him. Though physical safety is paramount, spiritual safety is essential. Jesus provides us with spiritual safety and security for eternity by covering our sins with his blood giving us the ability to enter the security of Heaven’s gates. “Then you will go on your way in safety, and your foot will not stumble. When you lie down, you will not be afraid; when you lie down, your sleep will be sweet. Have no fear of sudden disaster or of the ruin that overtakes the wicked, for the Lord will be at your side and will keep your foot from being snared” (Proverbs 3:23-26, New International Version).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control & Food and Drug Administration. (n.d.). Information for healthcare providers. Retrieved from https://vaers.hhs.gov/resources/infoproviders.html
Zhou, W., Pool, V., Iskander, J., English-Bullard, R., Ball, R., Wise, R., & … Chen, R. (2003). Surveillance for safety after immunization: Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) — United States, 1991-2001 [corrected] [published erratum appears in MMWR MORB MORTAL WKLY REP 2003 Feb 14;52(6):113]. MMWR: Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report, 52(RR-1), 1-24. Retrieved from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.ezproxy.liberty.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=4&sid=62310584-e3ef-4be9-bef9-63deaed192a8%40sessionmgr103
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.
I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.
Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.
If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.
Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!