Assignment NRS 434VN Week 2-Assessment Of The Child
Growth is defined as the continuous changes in size in both internal and external aspects. On the other hand, development is defined as the continuous process of adaptation throughout an individual’s lifespan (Scharf, Scharf & Stroustrup, 2016). Development progresses in a systematic sequence; however, each child advances through the predictable stages within a specific timeframe. School-aged children include children aged 6 to 12 years old. This paper seeks to compare the physical assessments among school-aged children, explain the typical developmental stages of a 6-year-old, and apply Erickson’s developmental theory to assess the child.
Physical Assessments among School-Aged Children
The physical assessment of a school-aged child involves a complete head-to-toe exam. The assessment begins with assessing the general state to note the child’s hygiene and grooming and any signs of neglect or abuse (Srinath et al., 2019). The second step is taking vital signs, but different blood pressure cuffs are used based on the child’s age. Anthropometric measurements are taken to assess nutritional status (Srinath et al., 2019). The head-to-toe exam is performed using the four techniques of inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. Special screenings are performed, including Vision, Hearing, and Dental screening (Srinath et al., 2019). The vision screening is conducted using a Snellen’s chart to measure visual acuity. It also involves assessing for squint, strabismus, and nystagmus (Srinath et al., 2019). A hearing screening is conducted if the child presents with complaints of impaired hearing. In addition, a dental screening is done for all school-aged children to assess for common dental conditions such as tooth cavities and bleeding gums as well as shedding of primary teeth and eruption of secondary teeth.
The school-aged child’s physical assessment would be modified to correspond to the age and developmental stage by beginning with the least discomforting or painful procedures and concluding with the discomforting ones (Srinath et al., 2019). I would also assess the parts associated with the chief complaint last. For example, in a child presenting with abdominal pain, I will examine the abdomen last to foster cooperation. Besides, for children from 6-8 years, I will conduct the exam in the caregiver’s presence to ensure cooperation (Srinath et al., 2019). However, for the older child, above eight years, I will provide privacy and promote autonomy. Furthermore, I will provide privacy for the older child by uncovering only the body parts being assessed to avoid discomfort from the development of secondary sexual characteristics.
Typical Developmental Stages of 6-Year-Olds
Key physical developmental milestones include improved locomotor skills such as skipping, running, and jumping. The child should demonstrate strong hand-eye coordination, such as the ability to throw a ball at a target (Scharf et al., 2016). They begin losing the milk teeth, and permanent molars, medial and lateral incisors begin to erupt. Emotional development milestones include demonstrating self-control skills and maintaining emotional stability (Scharf et al., 2016). Cognitive developmental milestones include knowing their age, concept of time, particularly night, morning, and afternoon (Scharf et al., 2016). Most have about 2560 words and make comprehensible 6-7 word sentences. Besides, the child should associate words with their use (Scharf et al., 2016). Typical social developmental milestones include fear of the dark and big animals, sibling jealousy, exhibiting a sense of humor, and being peer-oriented.
Application of Erickson Theory in Developmental Assessment
A 6-year-old falls in the Industry versus Inferiority stage in the Erickson theory. In the Industry versus Inferiority stage, the child develops a sense of confidence by mastering tasks (Orenstein & Lewis, 2020). However, the sense of accomplishment can be offset by a sense of inferiority that arises from failing. I would apply the Erickson theory by assessing a child’s ability to perform tasks independently, such as homework and hygiene and grooming activities, and the ability to regulate social behavior (Orenstein & Lewis, 2020). Besides, I would give the child a task and ask them to do it independently. I would also assess whether the child develops a sense of inferiority, such as low self-esteem, when unable to perform the task.
I would offer explanations using simple and short sentences and inform the child of any painful procedures, to gain cooperation. I would also use polite, non-threatening language to relieve anxiety and promote cooperation (Srinath et al., 2019). Besides, I would ask the child to provide his demographic information and history of present illness to encourage a sense of autonomy. I would also inform the child of the assessment findings, any abnormalities found, and additional tests that will be required.
Growth and development are continuous from conception to death. The physical assessment of a school-aged child involves taking vital signs, anthropometric measurements, head-to-toe exam, visual, hearing, and dental screening. Assessment can be modified by beginning with the least painful procedures and assessing the systems associated with the complaints last. Developmental assessment of a 6-year-old entails assessing milestones in the motor, cognitive, emotional, and social aspects. The Erickson developmental theory can be applied to assess a child’s development by asking the school-aged child to independently perform a task and assess if they develop a sense of inferiority if they fail.
Orenstein, G. A., & Lewis, L. (2020). Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. In StatPearls [Internet]. StatPearls Publishing.
Scharf, R. J., Scharf, G. J., & Stroustrup, A. (2016). Developmental Milestones. Pediatrics in review, 37(1), 25. https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.2014-0103
Srinath, S., Jacob, P., Sharma, E., & Gautam, A. (2019). Clinical practice guidelines for the assessment of children and adolescents. Indian journal of psychiatry, 61(Suppl 2), 158. https://doi.org/10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_580_18
In this assignment, you will be exploring actual and potential health problems in the childhood years using a functional health assessment and Erickson’s Stages of Child Development. To complete this assignment, do the following:
Using the textbook, complete the “Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment.” Follow the instructions in the resource for completing the assignment.
Cite and reference any outside sources used in your answers. Include in your assessment a thorough discussion of Erickson’s Stages of Child Development as it pertains to the development age of the child.
While APA format is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected and in-text citations and references should be presented using APA documentation guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
NRS 434VN Week 2-Assessment Of The Child
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
You are not required to submit this assignment to Turnitin.
NRS434V.v10R.Children’s functional health pattern assessment_Student.docx
Textbook- Physical Examination & Health Assessment 7th edition by Carolyn Jarvis
Children’s Functional Health Pattern Assessment
Functional Health Pattern Assessment (FHP)
Erickson’s Developmental Stage:
Erickson’s Developmental Stage:
Erickson’s Developmental Stage:
Pattern of Health Perception and Health Management:
List two normal assessment findings that would be characteristic for each age group.
Child development assessment is defined as a process of getting data about their growth and development. The Nurse aims at getting a record growth in all areas while collecting the information. The data being collected include language, cognitive and social-emotional and approaches to learning. Child assessments is important in ascertaining children with special needs that may require extra support (Kaufman, 2018).
Comparing physical assessments of a child to an adult
Obtaining data is different at each age because human needs vary with age. In addition, the mode of assessment used is dynamic. For example, piece of information is obtained from the parent or care giver in a 5-year-old compared to the nineteen-year-old that can express themselves coherently. The Nurse uses Observation as one of the techniques used in the assessment. Here, the care provider interacts with the child and concludes based on their conduct. The other methods include standard test, portfolios, care provider ratings and parent ratings. However, all methods are best applicable for different ages. There is need to modify the techniques in some situation. For example, reading out questions on a standardized test for a five-year-old and writing out the answers for them. However, when the same approach is used on a twelve-year-old, they are left to read, interpret, and even answer the questions on the test with minimal assistance,
Communication strategies a nurse would use to encourage engagement
Nine-year-old Ben was born at 37 weeks with 2600grams via safe vaginal delivery and was admitted for 2 weeks due to birth asphyxia. He had gained 300grams on discharge. He was breastfed exclusively for the first 6 months and was weaned with different soft foods. He could roll over at 4 months and began sitting at 6. He was hospitalized for severe malnutrition for a month while he was 9 months old. This delayed his milestone and he only crawled when he was 16 months. He could say four-letter words at 6 months and could say complete simple sentences at 24 months. He has good relationship with his family members. He started school at 4 years, is obedient, has average performance, loved by teacher and friends at school. Ben fits into the 4th stage of Erikson developmental theory, known as Industry vs. Inferiority. The basic virtue at this stage is competency (Cherry, 2018). Based on Erikson`s theory, the nurse should focus on his ability to read, do simple sums, and write. The assessor will obtain information on Ben`s friends and this assessment done with he is with his friends. The friends he does not like will make him feel inferior.
Child development assessment is important because it provides opportunity for the care provider to establish any special needs that the child may require. Moreover, the assessment provides a ground where both the care provider and the parents can provide support for the child. However, the needs of the child change with time and hence the mechanisms used in assessing as well as the results (Kaufman, 2018).
Cherry, K. (2018). Erik Erikson`s Stages of Psychosocial Development. Retrieved June 5, 2018.
Kaufman, A. S. (2018). Contemporary intellectual assessment: Theories, tests, and issues. Guilford Publications.
replied toStanley Ogbo
Feb 6, 2022, 12:28 PM
Replies to Stanley Ogbo
How do you think culture plays a part in performing assessments?
replied toLily Polsky
Feb 6, 2022, 10:22 PM
Replies to Lily Polsky
Hello Dr. Polsky,
Thanks for your post. Culture is defined as a way of life of a people. Culture affects how the people perceive wellness and illness.
As nurses, it is paramount that we understand the diverse cultural beliefs of our patients to enable us do a meaningful health assessment that would lead to accurate diagnosis and treatment.
Feb 4, 2022, 11:59 PM
Replies to Rizalina Orencia
When considering comparing physical assessments of a child versus an adult, the nurse must recognize that there are key differences between the two examinations. A physical assessment (PA) with an adult starts with assessing vitals, mood, hygiene, demeanor, and level of consciousness. The nurse has an opportunity to observe non-verbal forms of responses to questions to incorporate subjective and objective observations. Assessment of a child, however, relies heavily on objective observation from the patient and the parent’s input. The nurse must remain familiar with stages of development to better identify behavior outside of the norm and to properly educate the parent to know when to seek assistance upon noticing abnormalities. While both children and adults have targeted milestones, milestones among adults may vary depending on societal norms. Reaching milestones for children have a heavy dependence on their environment, family history, and cultural and traditional influences. The text mentions many factors to consider when assessing a child. One of which is nutrition. This aspect is often influenced by culture and family traditions. According to the CDC, more than 12 million children are obese (Falkner, 2018) and are at risk of co-morbidities such as heart disease, malnourishment despite being overweight, and chronic diseases. The nurse has an opportunity to provide patient education to the parent, with the child being a passive listener. In doing so, it is critical that the nurse put aside biases and present options and information as opposed to judgement (Falkner, 2018).
When involving the pediatric patient, therapeutic communication is key. The nurse will observe body language and pick up on ques in instances where the child may begin to withdraw or be uncomfortable. Allowing the child to participate in the assessment process may help them become more comfortable. Perhaps allow child to hold and use stethoscope, therapeutic touch and vivid interaction like asking the patient to say “aaaww”, positive reinforcement such as saying “good job”, and the use of comfort objects to demonstrating what will take place in the PA on a teddy bear are all methods that encourage engagement of a child patient.
Falkner, A. (2018). Grand Canyon University (E.D). Age-Appropriate Approach to Pediatric Health Care Assessment. Retrieved from https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs434vn/health-assessment-foundations-for-effective-practice/v1.1/#/chapter/2.