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Assignment Module 3 Case – SAMPLING

Assignment: Module 3 Case – SAMPLING

Module 3 – Case

Sampling

Case Assignment

Read the background materials for this module. After doing so, address the following questions in a four-page paper:

1. The sampling frame is arguably the most critical element of a study’s sampling plan. Why is this so?

2. How might a poorly specified sampling frame forestall the research process?

3. Are studies that employ convenience sampling invalid? Please explain.

Of the sampling methods presented in this module, which optimize external validity? If this term is unfamiliar, revisit the Module 2 home page. Please explain.

Assignment Expectations

1. You are expected to consult the scholarly literature in preparing your paper; you are also expected to incorporate relevant background readings.

2. Your paper should be written in your own words. This will enable me to assess your level of understanding.

3. In order to earn full credit, you must clearly show that you have read all required background materials.

4. Cite your references in the text of all papers and on the reference list at the end. For examples, look at the way the references are listed in the modules and on the background reading list.

5. Proofread your paper to be sure grammar and punctuation are correct and that each part of the assignment has been addressed clearly and completely.

6. Your assignment will not be graded until you have submitted an Originality Report with a Similarity Index (SI) score <20% (excluding direct quotes, quoted assignment instructions, and references). Papers not meeting this requirement by the end of the session will receive a score of 0 (grade of F). Do keep in mind that papers with a lower SI score may be returned for revisions. For example, if one paragraph accounting for only 10% of a paper is cut and pasted, the paper could be returned for revision, despite the low SI score. Please use the report and your SI score as a guide to improve the originality of your work.

Length: 4 pages typed, double-spaced.

Note: Wikipedia is not an acceptable source of information.

Module 3 – Home

Sampling

Modular Learning Outcomes

Upon successful completion of this module, the student will be able to satisfy the following outcomes:

· Case

· Delineate a study’s sampling frame and sample.

· Distinguish the various probability and non-probability sampling methodologies.

· SLP

· Delineate a sampling frame and sample.

· Discussion

· Delineate a study’s sampling frame and sample.

Module Overview

In this module, we will discuss types and levels of study variables as well as deriving a study sample. We will begin with some basic definitions.

Variables (Data)

Variables are measurable characteristics of people, objects, or events; the information we are describing and analyzing. The aggregate of our observations comprise our data set.

Operationalization: Specific manner in which one measures or manipulates variables in a study; defining variables so as to make them measurable. Click Operationalizing Variables to learn more about operationalization of study variables.

Types of Variables

Discrete:

A variable of a countable number of integer outcomes, e.g., “people’s choices of hospitals” (hospital A, B, or C) or “disease status” (diseased, non-diseased).

Assignment Module 3 Case – SAMPLING

Assignment Module 3 Case – SAMPLING

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Categorical:

A variable made up of categories of objects/entities having no order, e.g., “gender” operationalized as male or female OR “hair color” defined as blonde, brown, brunette, red, etc.).

Continuous:

A variable that be measured to any level of precision (e.g., “time”).

Independent Variables: studied for their potential or expected influence

Dependent Variables: the outcome, or influenced variables

Levels of Measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio)

Nominal (Discrete, Categorical):

Variables for which the set of all possible values falls into a finite set of mutually exclusive and exhaustive classes. The values of nominal variables need not be numerically meaningful: addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division do not necessarily make sense.

Examples: sex (male, female), color (red, yellow, blue, etc.), exposed/not exposed, with heart disease/without heart disease, marital status (single, married, widowed, divorced).

Variables with just 2 categories are also called dichotomous.

Ordinal or “Rank”:

A nominal variable whose classes or categories have a natural, logical order.

Examples: quality (poor, fair, good, excellent), academic level (freshman, sophomore, junior, senior, graduate), frequency of behavior (never, rarely, often, very often), order of finish in an election, respiratory distress (absent, mild, moderate, severe).

Interval (Continuous Variables):

Interval Variables. For these variables all possible values are numbers, and subtraction makes sense (intervals are meaningful). Example: temperature.

Ratio (Continuous Variables):

Ratio. All possible values are numbers, and multiplication and division make sense (ratios are meaningful), i.e., zero (0) means “none.“ Examples: height, weight, number of children, blood pressure, grams of food.

Continuous variables can be transformed and analyzed as categorical variables by establishing cutoffs between ranges of values.

Example: height in inches can be converted into categories of height: short (<60), medium=”” 60=”” height=”” 72=”” tall=””>72in).

Sampling Terminology

Sample: a number of individual cases that are drawn from a larger population.

Sampling Frame: the group of sampling units or elements from which a sample is actually selected; the list from which a sample is selected.

Population: The group to which the researcher wishes to generalize the findings of his or her study; also, the group she or he samples from in a study.

Probability Sample: a sample that gives every member of the population a known (nonzero) chance of being selected.

Non-probability Sample: a sample that has been drawn in a way that doesn’t give every member of the population a known chance of being selected. Probability samples are generally more representative of the populations from which they are drawn as compared with non-probability samples.

Probability Sampling

Simple Random Sampling: The most common type of probability sampling. Each member of the population has an equal and independent chance of being selected to be part of the sample.

Steps in simple random sampling:

1. Define the population from which you want to select the sample

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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