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Assignment Memory Retrieval Effort 

Assignment: Memory Retrieval Effort 

*Correspondence: Philip U. Gustafsson

philip.gustafsson@psychology.su.se

Specialty section: This article was submitted to

Forensic and Legal Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

Received: 13 November 2018 Accepted: 13 March 2019 Published: 29 March 2019

Citation: Gustafsson PU, Lindholm T and

Jönsson FU (2019) Predicting Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies

With Memory Retrieval Effort and Confidence.

Front. Psychol. 10:703. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00703

Predicting Accuracy in Eyewitness Testimonies With Memory Retrieval Effort and Confidence Philip U. Gustafsson* , Torun Lindholm and Fredrik U. Jönsson

Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden

Evaluating eyewitness testimonies has proven a difficult task. Recent research, however, suggests that incorrect memories are more effortful to retrieve than correct memories, and confidence in a memory is based on retrieval effort. We aimed to replicate and extend these findings, adding retrieval latency as a predictor of memory accuracy. Participants watched a film sequence with a staged crime and were interviewed about its content. We then analyzed retrieval effort cues in witness responses.

Results showed that incorrect memories included more “effort cues” than correct memories. While correct responses were produced faster than incorrect responses, delays in responses proved a better predictor of accuracy than response latency. Furthermore, participants were more confident in correct than incorrect responses, and the effort cues partially mediated this confidence-accuracy relation. In sum, the results support previous findings of a relationship between memory accuracy and objectively verifiable cues to retrieval effort.

Assignment Memory Retrieval Effort 

Assignment Memory Retrieval Effort

Click here to ORDER an A++ paper from our MASTERS and DOCTORATE WRITERS:Assignment: Memory Retrieval Effort 

Keywords: eyewitness accuracy, eyewitness testimony, confidence-accuracy relation, response latency, retrieval effort cues

INTRODUCTION

Eyewitness memories are often critical sources of information for investigating what happened during a criminal offense (Wells et al., 2006). Although playing a central role in criminal investigations and decision-making, eyewitness evidence has often been found to be unreliable, and constitutes a major contributing factor behind wrongful convictions (Garrett, 2011; Innocence project, 2018).

Erroneous eyewitness reports are sometimes due to a witness’ deliberate lies about the target event (see DePaulo et al., 2003; Sporer and Schwandt, 2006; Vrij et al., 2017). Perhaps less obvious, and another major source of eyewitness error, is when a witness gives an honest report but remembers things incorrectly. While differentiating between sincere correct and incorrect memories may be critical to reaching valid judicial decisions, research has demonstrated that people have great difficulty in judging the accuracy of others’ memories (Lindholm, 2005, 2008a,b).

Despite its importance to the judicial process, relatively little research has examined the extent to which erroneous eyewitness memories may differ from those that are accurate. The present study attempts to provide insight into potential differences between honestly reported correct and incorrect verbal eyewitness testimonies. We do this by replicating and extending the research of Lindholm et al. (2018), in which memory

Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org 1 March 2019 | Volume 10 | Article 703

https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/psychology/
https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/psychology#editorial-board
https://www.frontiersin.org/journals/psychology#editorial-board
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00703
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00703
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fpsyg-10-00703 March 28, 2019 Time: 18:56 # 2

Gustafsson et al. Effort Cues, Confidence, and Accuracy

accuracy was found to be related to indicators of retrieval effort in witnesses’ responses.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

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  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

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Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

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