Assignment: Internal Validity in Sociology Research
The validity of the rehabilitation program may be compromised by the two groups selected for the study. For example, there was no random selection when choosing the groups. Also, gaining employment may or may not prove that these individuals can maintain employment and for how long. This type of study would need a random selection of the groups as well as follow-up for a specific amount of time in order to follow how these groups were able to maintain the full-time employment. The individuals that did not find employment and the individuals that found part-time employment would also need to be followed to measure whether full-time employment was achieved after a period of time. This type of study gives a basic measurement but in order to truly get a valid conclusion regarding the rehabilitation program and the ability to gain and maintain full-time employment, there would need to be further evaluation.
In the case study “Social Work Research: Chi Square”, Molly, an administrator with a regional organization asked a team of researchers to conduct an outcome evaluation of a new vocational rehabilitation program for recently paroled prison inmates (Plummer, Makris, & Brocksen, 2014). The findings of the chi square showed that the vocational rehabilitation intervention program is effective in increasing the employment status of participants. These conclusions come from two groups, which are the first 30 participants (intervention group) and the waiting list 30 participants (comparison group). The vocational rehabilitation intervention program is effective due to 18 or 60.0% that are a part of the intervention group, have full-time employment. The Chi Square also shows that out of the comparison group, 6 or 20.7% have full-time employment, but 16 or 55.2% do not have employment, and are not participating in the program. However, if the non-employment levels from the comparison group were affected (in the program), then the study shows that there is a greater chance for full-time employment for participants.
The factors limiting the internal validity of this study is that the researcher of this study observed the comparison group and the 30 (wait list) participants were not affected by this study. Internal validity is only relevant in studies that try to establish a causal relationship and is not relevant in most observational or descriptive studies (Trochim, 2006). The intervention group was affected due to, they are already participating in the program and benefiting from the program. This group was also observed. Factors that limits the ability to draw conclusions regarding cause and effect relationships are that the test only describes the relationship between two variables, which are employment levels and treatment condition. The study does not discuss anything prior to when the paroles where prison inmates. Employment level outcome effectiveness for recently paroled prison inmates are being studied. It doesn’t tell what was done for the program for the participants to gain full-time employment, which shows construct validity (Trochim, 2006).
Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen S. (Eds.). (2014b). Social work case studies: Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing.
Trochim, W. M. K. (2006). Internal Validity. Retrieved from http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/intval.php
Respond to at least two colleagues in the following ways:
· Address a colleague’s post that differs from yours with regard to at least one cultural lens and expand upon the colleague’s interpretation of Paula’s needs.
· Explain whether you might use your colleague’s strategy for addressing multiple perspectives when treating clients, and explain why.
Dudley, J. R. (2014). Social work evaluation: Enhancing what we do. (2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: Lyceum Books.
Plummer, S.-B., Makris, S., & Brocksen, S. (Eds.). (2014b). Social work case studies: Concentration year. Baltimore, MD: Laureate International Universities Publishing. (Vital Source e-reader).
Threats to the Internal Validity of Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Research in Healthcare
The article defines, describes, and discusses the seven threats to the internal validity of experiments discussed by Donald T. Campbell in his classic 1957 article: history, maturation, testing, instrument decay, statistical regression, selection, and mortality. These concepts are said to be threats to the internal validity of experiments because they pose alternate explanations for the apparent causal relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable of an experiment if they are not adequately controlled. A series of simple diagrams illustrate three pre-experimental designs and three true experimental designs discussed by Campbell in 1957 and several quasi-experimental designs described in his book written with Julian C. Stanley in 1966. The current article explains why each design controls for or fails to control for these seven threats to internal validity.
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.
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Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!