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Assignment: Hypertension Teaching Plan Essay

Assignment Hypertension Teaching Plan Essay

Identification of Focus for Community Teaching:

Prevention of high blood pressure requires one to modify their lifestyle by eating healthier diets, engaging in exercise and quitting smoking (Zhang, Wang & Joo, 2017).

Epidemiological Rationale:

Blood pressure predisposes one to risk for stroke and heart disease which are ranked as leading causes of death in the United States. The disease affects approximately 75 million American adults which accounts for 32% of the entire population (Zhang, Wang & Joo, 2017).  The translation of the statistic is that one in every three adults has high blood pressure.  Additionally, only 54% of the affected population has managed to control its pressure. In 2014, hypertension resulted in 410, 000 deaths meaning that 1,100 people died each day (Ozemek et al., 2017). The annual cost linked to the high blood pressure is $48.6 billion each year contributed by missed days of work, medications and health care services.

Teaching Plan Criteria

Nursing Diagnosis:

Hypertension has six key nursing diagnoses which are a risk for decreased cardiac output, acute pain, knowledge deficit, imbalanced nutrition, ineffective coping and activity intolerance (Zhang, Wang & Joo, 2017).

Readiness for Learning:

Health education enhances one’s knowledge of disease and helps in taking a more positive role in managing health. The target audience is adults aged 40 to 75 years. The population is ready to learn because the risk of hypertension increases with age. Furthermore, the target community has a higher percentage of people who smoke, eat unhealthy diets, are overweight, excessively drink alcohol, do not engage in physical activity and live with chronic stress (Zhang, Wang & Joo, 2017).  All these predispose the community to hypertension.

According to HDS 5.1, the Healthy People 2020 aims at reducing the proportion of adults with hypertension (Healthy People 2020). The objective aligns with the current education program since the target is to ensure that the target community adopts lifestyle measures that prevent the occurrence of hypertension.

How Does This HP2020 Objective Relate to Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives?

The relationship between HDS 5.1 and Alma Ata’s Health for All Global Initiatives is that it will improve hypertension control which will enhance the health and longevity of the U.S population.



Develop Behavioral Objectives (Including Domains), Content, and Strategies/Methods:

Behavioral Objective
and Domain





The participants will be able to limit salt intake in their diet.




Reduction in salt intake reduces blood pressure by about 5 to 6 mmHg.

Sodium intake should be limited to 2,300 mg per day or less.

PowerPoint slides on various ways to reduce salt intake.

After explaining ways to handle salt intake in diet participants should be able to list them. Examples are reading food labels, eating fewer processed foods, avoiding adding salt on already cooked food.

Participants should report increased exercise and better weight management.




Regular exercise of about 30 minutes a day or 150 hours a week can lower the blood pressure by 5 to 8 mmHg.

Being overweight causes sleep apnea which increases blood pressure.

For each Kg lost the blood pressure reduces by 1mmHG

Charts indicating various exercises one can engage in like walking, jogging, cycling, swimming or dancing.

Participants should be able to engage in regular exercises and monitor their weights.


Participants should be able to explain a DASH diet




Eating more fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products, less saturated and total fat Interactive poster presentation showing a DASH diet.

Participants should be able to keep a food journal, increase sodium intake and read food labels.

Participants should be able to list the dangers of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking




Drinking alcohol raises blood pressure and reduces the effectiveness of the medication.

Smoking is the strongest risk factor for cardiovascular disease and increases blood pressure levels.

Focus group discussion with the teacher as the moderator.

Participants should understand that

Limit alcohol intake to two drinks daily for men and one drink for women.



Creativity: How was creativity applied in the teaching methods/strategies?


To enhance the effectiveness of the teaching, beautiful and simple PowerPoint slides were used, interactive posters and charts

Assignment Hypertension Teaching Plan Essay

Assignment Hypertension Teaching Plan Essay

displayed and focus group discussion used to discuss some of the issues learned during the sessions.


Planned Evaluation of Objectives (Outcome Evaluation): Describe what you will measure for each objective and how.

  1. The number of participants able to list various ways of reducing salt intake in food.
  2. Participants who report engaging in exercise and working on the weight.
  3. Participants who can comfortably explain a DASH diet and come up with recipes.
  4. Participants who understand the dangers of excessive drinking and cigarette smoking.


Planned Evaluation of Goal:

A teach-back method will be used to evaluate the overall effectiveness of the teaching plan. After one week, participants will be called and asked to explain various things learned and prompted where they seem to have difficulties.


Planned Evaluation of Lesson and Teacher (Process Evaluation):


Self-evaluation will be used to answer questions like;

  • What went well in this lesson? Why?
  • What problems did I experience? Why?
  • What could I have done differently?
  • What did I learn from this experience that will help me in the future?



Some of the barriers expected are low health literacy levels which will be covered by preparing teaching materials that can be easily understood. Unpredictable work hours may also affect the training which will be handled by asking the participants their availability to ensure that lessons are aligned with their availability. Lastly, the lack of access to physical activity options and healthy foods is an expected barrier that may reduce the impact of the training. The participants will be trained to use available resources.


Therapeutic Communication

To capture the interest of the audience, rhetorical questions, shocking headlines, gripping photos, and short videos will be used at the beginning of presentations. For active listening, tactics like provocative questions, sharing personal experiences and explaining what’s at stake will be used. The presentations will be concluded using compelling stories and interesting facts. Nonverbal communication techniques that will be employed are gestures, eye contact, and tone of voice, body language, and facial expressions.


Healthy People 2020. (2020). Heart Disease and Stroke | Healthy People 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topics-objectives/topic/heart-disease-and-stroke/objectives

Ozemek, C., Phillips, S. A., Popovic, D., Laddu-Patel, D., Fancher, I. S., Arena, R., & Lavie, C. J. (2017). Nonpharmacologic management of hypertension: a multidisciplinary approach. Current opinion in cardiology, 32(4), 381-388.

Zhang, D., Wang, G., & Joo, H. (2017). A systematic review of economic evidence on community hypertension interventions. American journal of preventive medicine, 53(6), S121-S130.

Sodium intake should be limited to 2,300 mg per day or less. PowerPoint slides on various ways to reduce salt intake.
After explaining ways to handle salt intake in diet participants should be able to list them. Examples are reading food labels, eating fewer processed foods, avoiding adding salt on already cooked food.
Participants should report increased exercise and better weight management.

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Vulnerable populations refer to a group of individuals that are at a higher risk of contracting illnesses. These groups are usually affected by various socioeconomic and other factors that impact their health outcome and make it difficult for them to advocate for their rights. There are several vulnerable groups in healthcare across the United States. These groups include the homeless, elderly population, children, and the LGBTQ community.

The homeless population represents one of the vulnerable groups in health care.  The population cohort represents approximately half a million individuals that report homelessness each night. The group is characterized by poor health outcomes due to various issues including their socioeconomic status. Research findings indicate that the homeless are at a higher risk of illnesses compared to the general population. The risks include substance abuse, communicable disease, and violence among others (Wadhera et al., 2019). Living on the streets with limited access to healthy foods further increases the risk of nutrition-related illnesses such as malnutrition. The harsh weather conditions such as the cold weather further increase the risk of certain illnesses such as pneumonia. The lack of financial resources further limits access to health care services as a majority lack health insurance. Therefore, they often have late clinical presentation to the emergency department further increasing the risk of complications. The emergency department is usually the primary care point for homeless individuals.

The homeless are usually unable to advocate for themselves due to various barriers especially related to their socioeconomic conditions. Some also lack access to information and, therefore, may not be conversant with their rights. The community health nurse has a role to play in advocating for the homeless to ensure that they have access to the essential resources that will help reduce their risk to illnesses. There are several ethical issues associated with the homeless such that affect clinicians. According to Hodson and Glennerster (2020), the discharge of homeless individuals leads to ethical issues. Discharging the individuals back to the streets does not allow proper healing and might affect the recovery process. However, there are instances where the clinicians might be left in a dilemma of what to do. Engaging social services in these situations is critical in solving such ethical dilemmas.


Hodson, N., & Glennerster, R. (2020). Discharge policies for homeless people and immigrants: Compromising professional ethics. Nursing Ethics, 27(5), 1355-1363. https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733020912518

Wadhera, R. K., Choi, E., Shen, C., Yeh, R. W., & Maddox, K. E. J. (2019). Trends, causes, and outcomes of hospitalizations for homeless individuals: a retrospective cohort study. Medical Care, 57(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000001015



Shola Akonu

replied toDian Bowes

Sep 14, 2022, 11:57 PM

A vulnerable population is a composition of individuals who may need support through health and safety. Some individuals require protection from different changes or risks. The vulnerable people comprise different groups, including pregnant women, the homeless, ethnic minorities, the elderly, and patients suffering from chronic conditions. A good example that can be presented of the vulnerable population in the United States is homeless. These individuals are characterized as suffering from a lack of residence and therefore having no shelter or temporary housing (Falkner, 2018). The homeless are represented among the population commonly referred to as vulnerable because of the existing high risks associated with critical health outcomes. This is related to the understanding that apart from having challenges associated with lack of shelter, the homeless are also at a higher risk because of lacking medical insurance and being referred to as vulnerable because of the communicable diseases commonly experienced among the group.  Regards!



Falkner, A. (2018). Community as Client. Retrieved from Gcumedia.com website: https://lc.gcumedia.com/nrs427vn/community-and-public-health-the-future-of-health-care/v1.1/#/chapter/3


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