Assignment: Health Promotion Among Diverse Populations
The American healthcare system is faced with the great challenge of inequality which displays a disproportionate impact on marginalized communities, including people of color (Boyd et al., 2020). Such inequalities are the reason behind the gaps in the acquisition of health insurance coverage, leading to uneven access to care services and poor health outcomes among the minority populations. Additionally, studies show that African Americans are significantly impacted by these inequalities contributing to the high prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension and diabetes, in addition to the increased mortality rates among this minority population. This discussion provides an analysis of the health status of African Americans, as part of the minority population, in comparison to the national average.
Health Status of African Americans
African Americans make up approximately 13.4% of the United States population. The current health status of black Americans displays an increased prevalence of chronic conditions such as hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, sexually transmitted infections, and diabetes as compared to whites. Increased morbidity and mortality rates among African Americans have been associated with several economic and social factors. For instance, studies show that African Americans have a more likelihood of not seeing a doctor when they are sick, as a result of high healthcare costs (Yearby, 2018). Despite the significant advances in the current healthcare system in the U.S., there is still evidence reporting that racial and ethnic minorities such as black Americans still receive a lower quality of care services leading to poor health outcomes as compared to the whites. As of 2019 August, it was reported that approximately 68 million people had been covered by the Medicaid program, with black Americans accounting for 20%. Given that most black Americans have lower social and economic status, they tend to be poorer than other demographic groups, hence making it harder for them to enroll in health insurance programs like Medicaid.
The death rate among African Americans has declined by about 25% over the past 17 years precisely for populations above the age of 65 years, as reported by the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, studies also show that young African Americans have a higher probability of dying at an early age as a result of increased risks for stroke, heart disease, cancer, pneumonia, diabetes, and HIV/AIDs among other conditions, as compared to their white counterparts. Social factors common among this minority group contributing to the above-mentioned health disparities include unemployment, smoking, alcoholism, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and poverty among others (Bell et al., 2020). Consequently, this group of individuals is also faced with nutritional challenges such as unfavorable nutritional environments, food deserts, food swamps, and food insecurities. For instance, black Americans are associated with poverty and a low level of education, which makes it hard for them to access quality and healthy foods as compared to the economically rich racial majorities. They end up consuming fast foods, among other unhealthy foods, which increases their risk of cardiovascular conditions and obesity.
Various barriers to the accessibility of quality health care services have been identified for the African American population. Predominating barriers include decreased understanding of care plans, inability to pay for care services, lack of transportation to care facility, and the inability of incorporating the recommended health care plans into their routine daily living pattern. These barriers are associated with several cultural, educational, socio-political, and socioeconomic factors. For instance, cultural beliefs among African Americans promoting unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle, in addition to failure to follow up on routine screening, negatively affects their overall health and utilization of healthcare services irrespective of their social or financial status (Lewis & Dyke, 2018). Consequently, the low socio-economic status among African Americans in terms of low income, unemployment, low education level, and occupation status is also a significant inhibitory factor towards accessibility to quality healthcare services. Lastly, as part of the minorities, blacks in the U.S have limited political influence towards the development of appropriate policies such as the “Obama Care,” to promote their access to quality care services.
Health Promotion Activities
With regard to the numerous health disparities affecting African Americans, several health promotion activities have been proposed over the years to help promote the health and well-being of this minority group. The self-help initiative was introduced among African Americans to promote taking personal responsibility for their health and improving their quality of life. Self-help health promotion practices among black Americans include routine screening for predominating health conditions, physical exercise, healthy diet plans, adoption of recommended care plans, and disease prevention practices at home (Fletcher et al., 2018). Consequently, for the religious members of the community, faith-basedorganizationslike churches have promoted structural health promotion activities including education, health fairs, and smoking cessation among others.
Approach for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention
One of the most effective approaches that can be utilized by African Americans in promoting their health as part of the care plan is the adoption of Pender’s health promotion model. According to the CDC, black Americans are at high risk of chronic diseases, with cardiovascular diseases being the leading cause of death among this group of individuals. Health promotion practices focusing on lifestyle modification have displayed great significance in reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases. Pender’s health promotion model, on the other hand, provides a foundation promoting the examination of the background influences of this minority population, in line with the health promotion practices that can lead to a healthy lifestyle (Fletcher et al., 2018). At the primary level, this model encourages regular exercise and a healthy diet to prevent chronic diseases and promote healthy living. At the secondary level, the model promotes routing screening for hypertension, diabetes, and cancer among other common diseases. Lastly, at the tertiary level, the model promotes education programs and rehabilitation among the affected individuals.
Cultural Beliefs and Practices
Other than social and economic factors, several cultural factors among black Americans must be considered when developing the most effective care plan. Some of such cultural beliefs include lack of trust in complementary medicine, misconceptions about immunization, and strong religious beliefs against organ donation among other medical procedures. With the theory of cultural humility, clinicians can now come up with flexible care plans, while still upholding the patients’ cultural values and beliefs (Boyd et al., 2020). This theory is based on the importance of preventing cultural discrimination and promoting the equal provision of care to the culturally diverse population.
Health promotion practices are crucial among the general population in disease prevention and improved quality of life. Minority populations such as African Americans, are faced with numerous health disparities as compared to the whites, hence the need for more health promotion activities. However, when coming up with a care plan for this minority population, it is necessary to identify and respect their cultural values and beliefs to promote positive outcomes.
Bell, C. N., Sacks, T. K., Tobin, C. S. T., & Thorpe Jr, R. J. (2020). Racial non-equivalence of socioeconomic status and self-rated health among African Americans and Whites. SSM-population health, 10, 100561.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2020.100561
Boyd, R. W., Lindo, E. G., Weeks, L. D., & McLemore, M. R. (2020). On racism: a new standard for publishing on racial health inequities. Health Affairs Blog, 10(10.1377). https://doi.org/10.1377/hblog20200630.939347
Fletcher, G. F., Landolfo, C., Niebauer, J., Ozemek, C., Arena, R., & Lavie, C. J. (2018). Promoting physical activity and exercise: JACC health promotion series. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 72(14), 1622-1639. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2018.08.2141
Lewis, T. T., & Van Dyke, M. E. (2018). Discrimination and the health of African Americans: The potential importance of intersectionalities. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(3), 176-182. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721418770442
Yearby, R. (2018). Racial disparities in health status and access to healthcare: the continuation of inequality in the United States due to structural racism. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 77(3-4), 1113-1152. https://doi.org/10.1111/ajes.12230
NRS 429V Week 3 Discussion 2
Traditionally, nutrition programs were targeted to the indigent and poor populations in developing countries. Many of today’s Americans are malnourished also, but they are inundated with unhealthy foods and require a multidisciplinary approach to nutrition education. What would be the three most important points to include in a public nutrition program? Provide current literature to support your answer and include two nutritional education community resources.
DQ 3 OLD
Compare and contrast the three different levels of health promotion (primary, secondary, tertiary). Discuss how the levels of prevention help determine educational needs for a patient.
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2
The Life approach to Health promotion and disease prevention contributes to greater awareness and healthier lifestyle, and subsequently improves health and quality of life. A healthy diet, physical activity, the reduction of stress as well as access to preventive health care contribute to a healthier lifestyle. Preventive measures for all age groups reduce treatment and care cost throughout the life course, particularly in old age. One can distinguish between primary, secondary and Tertiary preventive care.
Primary Prevention– Primary prevention is the protection of health by implementing personal and community wide action such as practices good hand hygiene, adequate nutrition, regular check up or screening tests, proper immunizations, proper physical activity and exercise. This is done by preventive exposures to hazard that cause disease or injury, alternating unhealthy and unsafe behavior leading to disease or injury. Nurse can educate the people to get proper immunization, about hand hygiene practices, proper sanitation.
Secondary Prevention- Encompasses early detection of disease of departures of department from good health and for prompt and effective corrective action. Mainly secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of disease or injury that has already occurred. This is done by detecting and treating disease or as soon as possible to slow its progress. Example nurse can educate the people for regular mammograms for the women above age oof 50 and colonoscopy for the men above 55years old , papsmear for women after 30years of her age , patient with family history of heart disease can check their Blood pressure regularly at home.
Tertiary Prevention- consists of measures to reduce and eliminate the long term impairments and disabilities, minimize suffering caused by existing departure from good health and promote the patient’s adjustment to irremediable conditions. This is done by helping people manage long term health problems such as stroke patients or patient with arthritis, In this level Nurse can involve the family members in rehabilitation care. Various therapies can be involve in tertiary prevention such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, physical therapy.
Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention. (n.d.). https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention
About. (n.d.). Who emro | health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity | public health functions | about who. http://www.emro.who.int/about-who/public-health-functions/health-promotion-disease-prevention.html
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2
Primary Health Promotion: Aimed at keeping those healthy people healthy, preventing problems down the line. This can encompass everything from health fairs, exercise programs, encouraging proper diet, vaccinations, washing hands, wearing a mask, to more general public health decisions like helping to pass a law requiring helmets or ban smoking (Falkner, 2018) (IWH, 2015).
Secondary Health Promotion: This level is more individualized and is based in early detection and treatment of a condition, which is where health screenings such as a prostate exam or pap smear come on, like when someone has their annual check up with their primary care physician. Prevention of and/or progression with the help of nurses is key (Falkner, 2018).
Tertiary Health Promotion: The patient has already suffered from an ailment and the goal is now to help them return as close to optimal health as possible, while keeping complications at a minimum. This is the involvement of most hospital level nurses. There may already be permanent changes to the patient’s way of life that the nurse must help educate and acclimate them to with help from the other hospital resources like physical therapy or occupational therapy (Falkner, 2018).
Again, primary is where a person will receive education on a subject or condition they may not necessarily be concerned about but is a preventable with the right effort put into place. If there is a family history of diabetes, the nurse explains how controlling caloric intake, eating nutrients, and not living a sedantary lifestyle will potentially help the patient avoid a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus type 2. At the secondary level, this same patient may be further concerned about DMT2 and after being educated decides it is important to have continious healthcare checkups to check their A1C level and confirm their blood sugar is under control. On the tertiary level, this same patient may be admitted to the hospital with a newly diagnosed DM2 and diabetic ketoacidosis, requiring use an insulin drip. They will need education on their new oral medications during their stay along with demonstration of checking their blood sugar so they are fully prepared to go home.
Falkner, A. (2018). Health Promotion: Health & Wellness Across the Continuum. https://www.gcumedia.com/digital-resources/grand-canyon-university/2018/health-promotion_health-and-wellness-across-the-continuum_1e.php
IWH Staff (2015). Primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention. https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention#:~:text=Primary%20prevention%20aims%20to%20prevent,or%20injury%20should%20exposure%20occur.
Re: Topic 3 DQ 2
There are three different levels of health promotion, primary, secondary and tertiary. “Primary prevention refers to actions aimed at avoiding the manifestation of a disease” (About, 2018). This would include such things as vaccinations, healthy eating habit or educating on the importance of not smoking. “Secondary prevention aims to reduce the impact of a disease or injury that has already occurred” (Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health, 2000). In order to do this, it is imperative to detect the problem early on in order to halt the disease process. Secondary prevention would include regular mammograms and pap smears or taking low dose aspirin to prevent a second heart attack or stroke. “Tertiary prevention aims to soften the impact of an ongoing illness or injury that has lasting effects” (Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health, 2000). This is when the damage is already done and care is aimed at lessening the long term effects of the problem. This would include things like physical or occupational therapy following a stroke or heart attack. The levels of prevention can help determine the educational needs for each patient. For instance you would want to educate young people on the dangers of smoking to include primary prevention in your education. Education of secondary prevention would include teaching women how to give themselves breast exams for early detection of breast cancer. Tertiary prevention education would be aimed at individuals following a stroke on how to rehabilitate themselves.
About. (2018). WHO EMRO | Health promotion and disease prevention through population-based interventions, including action to address social determinants and health inequity | Public health functions | About WHO. Who.Int. http://www.emro.who.int/about-who/public-health-functions/health-promotion-disease-prevention.html
Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention | Institute for Work & Health. (2000). Iwh.on.Ca. https://www.iwh.on.ca/what-researchers-mean-by/primary-secondary-and-tertiary-prevention
Hispanic’s Current Health Status
Hispanics form the largest minority group living in America. Its population is recurrently being reshaped by social forces and secular trends in disease. The main diseases affecting Americans and Latinos included are obesity and diabetes. “Diabetes is one of the most common chronic conditions in the United States, and its prevalence is increasing” (Harris, 1998). These diseases are primary negative outcomes of health disparity among the Hispanics. Even though there has been health promotion and the intervention to prevent the rise and spread of diseases in America, the Latino population still lags behind. Based on the findings arrived at by the Center for Disease Control in 2013, approximately 12% of Latino’s population had been affected by diabetes while the overall percentage of those affected was 8 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2004). These findings relied on a study conducted in 2010 where it was discovered that Hispanic men were worse affected as compared to women. When compared with data from previous years, it was proven that there has been an increase in the rates at which diabetes is rising. In the case of Hispanic children, they suffer a higher risk of having obesity and diabetes than the overall population (Gordon-Larsen, 2003). This also means that Hispanic children are prone to being affected by diabetes and obesity than adults. A good number of Hispanics are also affected by heart illnesses which occur as a result of obesity.
Defining Health Promotion among Hispanics
The broad definition of health promotion is that it is the means of enabling individuals to improve and increase control over their health. The definition would be inconclusive without the inclusion of health education. Health promotion is a mixture of educational as well as environmental supports for acts of living a healthy life. Health promotion utilizes enabling aspects on every level of society. With the help of environmental, societal and political support, health promotion helps individuals make informed decisions about their health through actions and behaviors (Thompson, 2009). It plays a vital role in the healthcare process in that it reduces risks involved by offering information directly linked to existing illnesses.
The Hispanic population defines health promotion as the distribution of educational materials with the goal of improving access to preventative healthcare. The information provided is a measure of raising awareness while at the same time defeat barriers relating to health. In health promotion, Hispanics will not only look at ways of improving their health but also at how social and environmental factors can be utilized to their advantage. Traditions and way of life of Hispanic people have largely influenced their decision to treat illnesses and care about health. Their cultural background and values have shaped their conduct when it comes to caring about their health status and those of others. Additionally, the values also determine where this group will seek treatment. All things said and done, the main objective of health promotion is prevention.
Health Disparities in the Hispanic Population
Some of the factors that have led to health disparities among the Hispanics are income, education, and nativity just to mention a few. These disparities in health are redundant and avoidable. They tend to be unfair and prejudicial to the minority Hispanics in the sense that they inhibit people from accessing quality health care services (DuBard, 2008). For a country that boasts of its top quality healthcare services, the least it could do is come up with a platform that includes every citizen regardless of their racial backgrounds. Income is a socioeconomic effect that affects all Americans but narrowing it down to the Hispanic population, it cannot be ignored that it is a crucial determinant of disparity. The study reveals that most Hispanics survive on a low income which forces them to seek low-grade health services compared the wealthier and better-educated Americans. Breaking it down further, Latinos born in America are better off than the immigrants in the sense that they have means of acquiring health insurance covers while only a few members of the latter group get the cover (Fiscella, 2002). Therefore, an immigrant Latino population is less likely to receive quality health care under the circumstances.
The level of education of Hispanics has also contributed to the health inequality. With an increase in the number of Hispanic dropouts due to unavoidable circumstances mostly, Hispanics lack basic education about their health and let alone how the health system in America functions (Mays, 2002). This group has been targeted in terms of providing health education. If these disparities are not addressed early, America may be facing a looming health crisis in the future.
Community Resiliance Approach health promotion prevention
Community resilience approach is the most durable method that can be used by Hispanics. Out of the three levels of prevention, primary prevention is the most useful for the marginalized Hispanic community. This is because health promotion employed deals with chronic illnesses and lifestyle choices that are prone to many Hispanics. In the primary level, diseases are prevented by curbing exposure to risks that result in these diseases (Thompson,2009).There is intervention before an illness can advance to an uncontrollable stage. The preventative measures advocated for are individual and communal as well which is why the community resilience approach was used. Eating healthy meals and exercising frequently are the individual measures while educating an entire neighborhood falls under the communal measures. The best part about primary prevention is that the suggested measures come at a low cost. With this in mind, people need to be provided with relevant information so that they can make worthy decisions about disease prevention and lifestyle behaviors. The secondary level of prevention involves the process of screening to ensure early detection and control of a disease. Health practitioners perform the role of educating the community as regards to the importance of early screening and advising them on skills to be used in early detection. Secondary prevention is all about early detection of a disease as well as its prompt treatment. On its part, tertiary prevention level is where the disease has been identified as a problem to the community. Reasonable measures are put in place to prevent further spread for instance rehabilitation. In the case of diabetes among the Hispanics, the community is retrained and re-educated on lifestyle choices and other health related issues. The training is carried out by health educators who are conversant with the community’s needs.
In order to improve the quality of healthcare provided to Hispanics, the federal government needs to invest in a multifaceted approach which considers barriers to health promotion. The approach would go a long way in eliminating ethnic as well as racial disparities in healthcare.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Health disparities experienced by Hispanics-United States. MMWR: Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 53(40), 935-937
DuBard, C.A., & Gizlice, Z. (2008). Language spoken and differences in health status, access to care, and receipt of preventative services among US Hispanics. American journal of public health, 98(11), 2021-2028. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2636430/
Gordon-Larsen, P., Harris, K. M., Ward, D. S., & Popkin, B. M. (2003). Acculturation and overweight-related behaviors among Hispanic Immigrants to the US: the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Social science & medicine, 57(11), 2023-2034. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14512234
Fiscella, K., Franks, P., Doescher, M.P., & Saver, B. G.(2002). Disparities in health care by race, ethnicity, and language among the insured: findings from a national sample. Medical care, 40(1), 52-59. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Disparities+in+health+care+by+race%2C+ethnicity%2C+and+language+among+the+insured%3A+findings+from+a+national+sample
Harris I. M (1998). Diabetes in America: Epidemiology and scope of the problem. Diabetes Care. PubMed 21 (Suppl 3): C11—C14.
Mays, V. M., Yancey, A. K., Cochran, S. D., Weber, M., & Fielding, J. E. (2002). Heterogeneity of health disparities among African American, Hispanic, and Asian American women: unrecognized influences of sexual orientation. American Journal of Public Health, 92(4), 632-639. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=Heterogeneity+of+health+disparities+among+African+American%2C+Hispanic%2C+and+Asian+American+women%3A+unrecognized+influences+of+sexual+orientation
Thomson, M. D., & Hoffman-Goetz, L. (2009). Defining and measuring acculturation: a systematic review of public health studies with Hispanic populations in the United States. Social science & medicine, 69(7) 983-991. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19525050
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.
I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.
Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.
If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.
Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!