Assignment: Fetal Development and Genetic Testing Essay

Assignment: Fetal Development and Genetic Testing Essay

Assignment  Fetal  Development and Genetic Testing Essay


During the fetal development period there is a rapid growth in size and mass coupled with progressive differentiation of the various organ systems. In clinical practice, the period is generally regarded as second trimester and third trimester. During antenatal care, majority of the measurements of growth are conducted through the use such tests as ultrasound and birth marks the end of fetal growth and development.  However, anomalies may occur during this stage of fetal development and various genetic screening methods are used to detect them. This paper will focus on the stages of fetal development and methods employed in genetic testing coupled with issues surrounding it.

Fetal Development Chart

1st Trimester 2nd Trimester 3rd Trimester
Week 2 Implantation of the fertilized ovum on the uterine wall
Week 3 to Week 8 The major organs, as well as anatomical structure, begin to form
Weeks 12 Sex organs start to differentiate
Week 16 The limbs and hands start to develop
13th to 28 weeks The fetus now has the distinct features of a human being, the nails harden and skin thickens. Additionally, the fetus visual and auditory sense start functioning and the fetus can now hear explaining the rationale behind some mothers communicating with their unborn kids


29-40weeks Major organ systems mature rapidly, the fetus starts preparation for birth and reaches the age of viability

At the last weeks of pregnancy, the fetus assumes a fetal position whereby it is positioned head down with the limbs being curled

Week 32 The body muscles become fully developed

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Prenatal genetic testing plays an essential role in determining if the fetus has any congenital abnormalities. This is different from the

normal pregnancy screening of the maternal blood and such imaging studies as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (Jelin, Sagaser, & Wilkins-Haug, 2019). However, they can be both employed to identify any abnormality in the growing fetus as part of antenatal care.

Genetic Tests Available to Parents

Parents can do such genetic tests as chorionic villus sampling, amniocentesis as well as Percutaneous Umbilical Blood sampling as they are now available to them. The chorionic villus sampling serves the purpose of diagnosing some fetal malformations, which can help to provide decisions whether to terminate a pregnancy or offer some interventions despite it being an invasive procedure (Mackie et al., 2017). Amniocentesis makes it easier for the obstetrician to measure the level of the alpha-fetoprotein in the amniotic fluid to help identify if the fetus has any brain or spinal cord defect (Abou Tayoun et al., 2018). The percutaneous umbilical blood sampling was employed when rapid chromosome analysis was required but currently, it serves to detect anemia in the fetus.

Ethical Dilemmas

The umbilical blood sampling has major shortcomings such as leading to a miscarriage in 1% of the pregnancies. Amniocentesis carries the risk of causing soreness, injuries to the fetus through the use of needles, spotting of blood or the leaking of amniotic fluid through the vagina, which can lead to miscarriage in 1 out of 500 procedures (Taylor-Phillips et al., 2016). Additionally, it can lead to the mixing of maternal and fetal blood leading to the activation of the immune system to produce antibodies against the baby (Mackie et al., 2017).  The ethical implication of all the tests is the fact that parents might decide to terminate the pregnancy if the test results are not pleasing.

Influence of Religious Worldview

My religious affiliations will not allow me to carry out genetic testing. I am a Catholic and I believe that it is God who gives babies and there is a reason why a child will be born with a congenital anomaly.  On top of that, genetic testing procedures have the risk of causing miscarriage even though life is precious and nobody has a right to ending someone’s life. Therefore, from the standpoint of my religion, there is no point in doing genetic testing.

Assignment: Fetal Development and Genetic Testing Essay Conclusion

Fetal developmental stages are very important for the well being of the unborn baby due to the fact that any abnormality leads to negative outcomes both to the mother and the fetus. Various methods have been devised using genetics to detect the fetal malformations. However, the methods have issues that affect their usability and therefore clinicians should carry out a cost-benefit analysis before conducting any procedure. On top of that, the patient’s beliefs and religious affiliations should come into play.

There are two parts to this assignment. In the first part you will create a chart showing the stages of fetal development. Then, for the second part, you will answer questions about genetic testing and the ethical decisions involved.
Part 1: Create a chart explaining the stages of fetal development. Each developmental period should be identified and briefly explain the development taking place.
Part 2: Use the document “Genetic Testing” posted in the files section, answer the questions regarding genetic testing and the ethical decisions involved in genetic testing.
Use two to four scholarly resources to support your chart and short answer claims. Include an APA reference page for both parts of the assignment.

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For assignments that need to be submitted to Lopes Write, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.

Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.

Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?

Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

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Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource