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Assignment: Empirical Research Identification Essay
Assignment: Empirical Research Identification Essay
After reading the abstract what do you expect to learn from the article? I expect to learn more about the views of the stakeholders concerning re-use of medications unused by the patients I expect to learn about the economic benefits of recycling waste ,medicines I expect to learn about the extra costs incurred in recycling drugs
Introduction: Summarize the following in paragraph form.
· What is the purpose of the study?
· What is the scope of the study?
· What is the rational for the study?
· What is the hypothesis or research question?
· What key concepts and terms are noted?
· Is a review of the literature provided? The purpose of the study was to determine the perceptions of the healthcare stakeholders on recycling unused medications by the patients. The study was conducted among stakeholders from Dutch. The rational for the study was to determine whether the stakeholders’ perceived re-use of unused drugs feasible in healthcare or not. The research question can be inferred to have been; what is the stakeholder view of re-using unused drugs by the patients. The concepts identified in the research included medication waste and costs of re-using unused medications. A review of relevant literature was done. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of recycling drugs. The scope focused on the cost implications of recycling various classes of drugs used in hospital settings. The rational for the study was that manufacture of drugs is expensive and consumes too much time. Therefore, it was necessary to determine whether recycling could lower the costs and resource use. The research question can be inferred to be; what is the cost saving attributed to recycling of drugs? The other question was; what is the reusability of the donations of drugs by source that could be utilized in streamlining recycling processes? The key terms identified in the research included cost-savings, medication recycling, and waste medicines. The researchers performed a review of literature. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of re-dispensing unused medications in pharmacies. The scope of the study was to determine the extra costs that would be incurred in re-dispensing unused drugs in pharmacies. The study was informed by the fact that re-dispensing unused drugs might reduce healthcare costs and wastage. However, little is known about the extra costs that are incurred in the process. The research question was not explicitly stated. It can be inferred to be; what are the extra costs incurred in re-dispensing unused drugs by the patients? The terms that were identified in the research included medication waste, re-dispensing, healthcare economics, micro-costing, and cost-benefit ratio. The researchers performed a review of relevant literature.
Methods: Summarize the following in paragraph form.
· What is the population being sampled?
· What data collection procedure is presented?
· What other procedures are described? The population that was sampled consisted of 19 Dutch stakeholders. Data was collected
through semi-structured interviews. The obtained data was analyzed using thematic content analysis. The samples included 244 donations from hospitals, patients, and private medical clinics. They were assessed recycling protocol and calculated using referencing pricing list obtained from a public hospital. A study was conducted in four Dutch pharmacies on medications that needed refrigeration and room temperature storage. The researchers identified resources and steps needed for re-dispensing, timed each of these steps through simulations, and required resources quantified using purchasing, labor, and overhead cost calculation. The price of medical costs of packaging of different drugs was then performed.
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Results: Summarize the following in paragraph form.
· What are the given findings?
· How was data collected?
· Are the findings supported by graphs and charts?
· What does the analysis of data state? The results showed that stakeholders perceived re-dispensing as desirable if safe implementation requirements are met. They also agreed that the quality of the re-dispensed medications should be guaranteed. The benefits should also outweigh the risks of re-dispensing. The stakeholders should also adopt open communication to promote trust towards the re-dispensed medications. The results were presented using tables and a chart. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews. The analysis of the data revealed that recycling of drugs is feasible in healthcare. The results revealed that 90.8% of the donated medications were reusable, which saved about $5266. Pharmacy technicians spent less than 2 hours sorting and distributing the donations. The medications donated by the health organizations had three times usability than those donated by the patients. The data was collected by observing the recycling of the donated drugs using a pre-developed protocol. The data was presented using tables. The data revealed that re-dispensing of unused medications is cost effective. Most of the medications were also reusable. The findings showed that re-dispensing drugs was associated with three processes that included packaging medications with quality indicators prior to dispensing, assessing quality of the returned medications, restocking medications that meet the criteria, and disposing those not meeting the criteria. An average of 5.3 minutes was spent repackaging the returned drugs, 6.8 minutes for storing them, and average costs of 5.4 and 7.61 pounds. Disposing medications was also associated with similar cost. The data was obtained through observing the pharmacists perform all the checks on drugs up to dispensing and disposal those found unsafe for recycling. Data was presented using tables and bar charts. Conclusively, re-dispensing drugs was associated with some cost saving.
Conclusion: Summarize in paragraph form.
· What is the summary of the study?
· What is the conclusion of the hypothesis?
· What are the questions for future research?
The summary of the study was that re-dispensing unused medications reduce medical wastes if the stated regulations are taken into consideration. There was no hypothesis in the study. According to the outcomes of the research, similar studies should be conducted in other countries to increase generalizability of the findings. The summary of the study was that most of the donated medications are reusable. However, the protocol used in determining the quality of drugs should be streamlined to increase the feasibility of reusing drugs. According to the researchers, future researches should focus on donations from healthcare institutions and use of classes of drugs with high yields. The summary of this study was that re-dispensing unused medications is somewhat cost-beneficial to pharmacies. However, it should be largely utilized in re-using expensive medications. The research did not use any hypothesis. The researchers recommended that future studies should take into consideration the perceptions of the healthcare providers on the cost-estimates of re-using unused medications.
· What are the total number of references used in the study?
· List two of the references used. The researchers used 31 references. The two of those used include the following:
World Health Organization. Guidelines on packaging for pharmaceutical; 2002 (WHO technical report series, no. 902)
Anderson C. Presenting and evaluating qualitative research. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010;74(8):141.
The researchers used 17 references. Two of the used researches include the following:
World Health Organisation. Waste from health-care activities, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs253/en (2011, accessed 1 January 2016).
Cohen RA and Villarroel MA. Strategies used by adults to reduce their prescription drug costs: United States, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db184.htm (2015, accessed 1 January 2016). The researchers used 29 references. Two them include the following:
SIRUM. Supporting Initiatives to Redistribute Unused Medicine. 2014. www. sirum.org. Accessed 10 July 2017
Reitsma M, Brabers A, Korevaar J, De JJ, van DM, van DL. One third of the medicine users has medicines left unused [Dutch]. Utrecht: Nivel; 2013
Empirical Research Checklist
Section Defining Characteristic Contained in Article Not Contained in Article
Abstract An abstract of the contents is provided.
Introduction The purpose of the study is stated.
The scope of the study is stated.
A rationale for the study is provided.
The hypothesis or research question is stated.
Key concepts and terms are noted.
A review of the literature is provided.
Methods A description of the population sample is provided.
The data collection procedure is presented.
Other procedures to be used are described.
Results A narrative statement of the findings is given.
A description of the data collected is given.
Findings are supported by graphs and charts.
The analysis of the data is explained.
Conclusion A summary of the study is provided.
Conclusions related to the hypothesis are stated.
Questions for future research are presented.
References References used in the study are presented.
The purpose of this assignment is to understand the usefulness of evidence and the support it provides when answering a PICOT question.
My DNP research article is on Recycling drugs.
The purpose of this assignment is to understand the usefulness of evidence and the support it provides when answering a PICOT question: Recycling drug/medication in nursing home.
Part 1: Empirical Article Selection
Locate three empirical articles related to your PICOT question that meet all the criteria found in \”Empirical Research Checklist.\”
Part 2: Research Article Chart
Using the articles acquired in Part 1, provide a summary review of each component using the \”Research Article Chart\” template.
Submit the completed \”Research Article Chart\” to the instructor.
Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please Review the rubric prior to the beginning to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Our medical society is too firmly rooted in tradition and has truly failed to adapt or adjust the ways to the knowledge gained from other country, with there laws, economics, and political theory. Flushing medication down the sink or toilet is a common practice, but has shown to be bad to our environment. In particular, the economic way is to reuse our medication waste, but it is been ignored. It has been shown that most of the medical world has no understanding of basic economic concepts such as value of re-using or opportunity costs, comparative advantage, and competition. The costs are particular high for our senior patients to management their health care needs and decisions they make are considered life or death. Economic wish to do away altogether with the idea of determining the costs of something as precious as our health, we live in a world of abundant resources, and efficient allocation of these resources must be a priority to get the most of the means at our disposal not just wasting it.
American Association of Colleges and Universities. (n.d.). Critical thinking VALUE rubric.
The American Association of Colleges and Universities (AACU) \”Critical Thinking VALUE Rubric\” can be used as a framework, or set of guidelines, to illustrate and clarify the depth and complexity of several types of parameters that are essential in project development processes.
Abstracts for three empirical articles are included are complete, correct, and provide substantial evidence.
Introduction for three empirical articles is extensive and includes substantial details related to specified key points.
Methods for three empirical articles are extensive and include substantial details related to specified key points.
Results for three empirical articles are extensive and include substantial details related to specified key points.
Conclusion for three empirical articles is extensive and includes substantial details related to specified key points.
References for three empirical articles are extensive and include substantial details related to specified key points.