Assignment: Empirical Research Identification Essay

Assignment: Empirical Research Identification Essay

Assignment Empirical Research Identification Essay



After reading the abstract what do you expect to learn from the article? I expect to learn more about the views of the stakeholders concerning re-use of medications unused by the patients I expect to learn about the economic benefits of recycling waste ,medicines I expect to learn about the extra costs incurred in recycling drugs
Introduction: Summarize the following in paragraph form.
· What is the purpose of the study?
· What is the scope of the study?
· What is the rational for the study?
· What is the hypothesis or research question?
· What key concepts and terms are noted?
· Is a review of the literature provided? The purpose of the study was to determine the perceptions of the healthcare stakeholders on recycling unused medications by the patients. The study was conducted among stakeholders from Dutch. The rational for the study was to determine whether the stakeholders’ perceived re-use of unused drugs feasible in healthcare or not. The research question can be inferred to have been; what is the stakeholder view of re-using unused drugs by the patients. The concepts identified in the research included medication waste and costs of re-using unused medications. A review of relevant literature was done. The purpose of the study was to determine the feasibility of recycling drugs. The scope focused on the cost implications of recycling various classes of drugs used in hospital settings. The rational for the study was that manufacture of drugs is expensive and consumes too much time. Therefore, it was necessary to determine whether recycling could lower the costs and resource use. The research question can be inferred to be; what is the cost saving attributed to recycling of drugs? The other question was; what is the reusability of the donations of drugs by source that could be utilized in streamlining recycling processes? The key terms identified in the research included cost-savings, medication recycling, and waste medicines. The researchers performed a review of literature. The aim of this study was to determine the cost of re-dispensing unused medications in pharmacies. The scope of the study was to determine the extra costs that would be incurred in re-dispensing unused drugs in pharmacies. The study was informed by the fact that re-dispensing unused drugs might reduce healthcare costs and wastage. However, little is known about the extra costs that are incurred in the process. The research question was not explicitly stated. It can be inferred to be; what are the extra costs incurred in re-dispensing unused drugs by the patients? The terms that were identified in the research included medication waste, re-dispensing, healthcare economics, micro-costing, and cost-benefit ratio. The researchers performed a review of relevant literature.
Methods: Summarize the following in paragraph form.
· What is the population being sampled?
· What data collection procedure is presented?
· What other procedures are described? The population that was sampled consisted of 19 Dutch stakeholders. Data was collected

through semi-structured interviews. The obtained data was analyzed using thematic content analysis. The samples included 244 donations from hospitals, patients, and private medical clinics. They were assessed recycling protocol and calculated using referencing pricing list obtained from a public hospital. A study was conducted in four Dutch pharmacies on medications that needed refrigeration and room temperature storage. The researchers identified resources and steps needed for re-dispensing, timed each of these steps through simulations, and required resources quantified using purchasing, labor, and overhead cost calculation. The price of medical costs of packaging of different drugs was then performed.

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Results: Summarize the following in paragraph form.
· What are the given findings?
· How was data collected?
· Are the findings supported by graphs and charts?
· What does the analysis of data state? The results showed that stakeholders perceived re-dispensing as desirable if safe implementation requirements are met. They also agreed that the quality of the re-dispensed medications should be guaranteed. The benefits should also outweigh the risks of re-dispensing. The stakeholders should also adopt open communication to promote trust towards the re-dispensed medications. The results were presented using tables and a chart. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews. The analysis of the data revealed that recycling of drugs is feasible in healthcare. The results revealed that 90.8% of the donated medications were reusable, which saved about $5266. Pharmacy technicians spent less than 2 hours sorting and distributing the donations. The medications donated by the health organizations had three times usability than those donated by the patients. The data was collected by observing the recycling of the donated drugs using a pre-developed protocol. The data was presented using tables. The data revealed that re-dispensing of unused medications is cost effective. Most of the medications were also reusable. The findings showed that re-dispensing drugs was associated with three processes that included packaging medications with quality indicators prior to dispensing, assessing quality of the returned medications, restocking medications that meet the criteria, and disposing those not meeting the criteria. An average of 5.3 minutes was spent repackaging the returned drugs, 6.8 minutes for storing them, and average costs of 5.4 and 7.61 pounds. Disposing medications was also associated with similar cost. The data was obtained through observing the pharmacists perform all the checks on drugs up to dispensing and disposal those found unsafe for recycling. Data was presented using tables and bar charts. Conclusively, re-dispensing drugs was associated with some cost saving.
Conclusion: Summarize in paragraph form.
· What is the summary of the study?
· What is the conclusion of the hypothesis?
· What are the questions for future research?
The summary of the study was that re-dispensing unused medications reduce medical wastes if the stated regulations are taken into consideration. There was no hypothesis in the study. According to the outcomes of the research, similar studies should be conducted in other countries to increase generalizability of the findings. The summary of the study was that most of the donated medications are reusable. However, the protocol used in determining the quality of drugs should be streamlined to increase the feasibility of reusing drugs. According to the researchers, future researches should focus on donations from healthcare institutions and use of classes of drugs with high yields. The summary of this study was that re-dispensing unused medications is somewhat cost-beneficial to pharmacies. However, it should be largely utilized in re-using expensive medications. The research did not use any hypothesis. The researchers recommended that future studies should take into consideration the perceptions of the healthcare providers on the cost-estimates of re-using unused medications.
· What are the total number of references used in the study?
· List two of the references used. The researchers used 31 references. The two of those used include the following:
World Health Organization. Guidelines on packaging for pharmaceutical; 2002 (WHO technical report series, no. 902)
Anderson C. Presenting and evaluating qualitative research. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010;74(8):141.
The researchers used 17 references. Two of the used researches include the following:
World Health Organisation. Waste from health-care activities, (2011, accessed 1 January 2016).
Cohen RA and Villarroel MA. Strategies used by adults to reduce their prescription drug costs: United States, (2015, accessed 1 January 2016). The researchers used 29 references. Two them include the following:
SIRUM. Supporting Initiatives to Redistribute Unused Medicine. 2014. www. Accessed 10 July 2017
Reitsma M, Brabers A, Korevaar J, De JJ, van DM, van DL. One third of the medicine users has medicines left unused [Dutch]. Utrecht: Nivel; 2013

Empirical Research Checklist

Section Defining Characteristic Contained in Article Not Contained in Article
Abstract An abstract of the contents is provided.
Introduction The purpose of the study is stated.
The scope of the study is stated.
A rationale for the study is provided.
The hypothesis or research question is stated.
Key concepts and terms are noted.
A review of the literature is provided.
Methods A description of the population sample is provided.
The data collection procedure is presented.
Other procedures to be used are described.
Results A narrative statement of the findings is given.
A description of the data collected is given.
Findings are supported by graphs and charts.
The analysis of the data is explained.
Conclusion A summary of the study is provided.
Conclusions related to the hypothesis are stated.
Questions for future research are presented.
References References used in the study are presented.


The purpose of this assignment is to understand the usefulness of evidence and the support it provides when answering a PICOT question.


My DNP research article is on Recycling drugs.The purpose of this assignment is to understand the usefulness of evidence and the support it provides when answering a PICOT question: Recycling drug/medication in nursing home.
Part 1: Empirical Article Selection
Locate three empirical articles related to your PICOT question that meet all the criteria found in \”Empirical Research Checklist.\”
Part 2: Research Article Chart
Using the articles acquired in Part 1, provide a summary review of each component using the \”Research Article Chart\” template.
Submit the completed \”Research Article Chart\” to the instructor.
General Requirements:
Doctoral learners are required to use APA style for their writing assignments. The APA Style Guide is located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please Review the rubric prior to the beginning to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
Our medical society is too firmly rooted in tradition and has truly failed to adapt or adjust the ways to the knowledge gained from other country, with there laws, economics, and political theory. Flushing medication down the sink or toilet is a common practice, but has shown to be bad to our environment. In particular, the economic way is to reuse our medication waste, but it is been ignored. It has been shown that most of the medical world has no understanding of basic economic concepts such as value of re-using or opportunity costs, comparative advantage, and competition. The costs are particular high for our senior patients to management their health care needs and decisions they make are considered life or death. Economic wish to do away altogether with the idea of determining the costs of something as precious as our health, we live in a world of abundant resources, and efficient allocation of these resources must be a priority to get the most of the means at our disposal not just wasting it.
American Association of Colleges and Universities. (n.d.). Critical thinking VALUE rubric.
The American Association of Colleges and Universities (AACU) \”Critical Thinking VALUE Rubric\” can be used as a framework, or set of guidelines, to illustrate and clarify the depth and complexity of several types of parameters that are essential in project development processes.


Abstracts for three empirical articles are included are complete, correct, and provide substantial evidence.

Introduction for three empirical articles is extensive and includes substantial details related to specified key points.

Methods for three empirical articles are extensive and include substantial details related to specified key points.

Results for three empirical articles are extensive and include substantial details related to specified key points.

Conclusion for three empirical articles is extensive and includes substantial details related to specified key points.

References for three empirical articles are extensive and include substantial details related to specified key points.

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Lopes Write Policy

For assignments that need to be submitted to Lopes Write, please be sure you have received your report and Similarity Index (SI) percentage BEFORE you do a “final submit” to me.

Once you have received your report, please review it. This report will show you grammatical, punctuation, and spelling errors that can easily be fixed. Take the extra few minutes to review instead of getting counted off for these mistakes.

Review your similarities. Did you forget to cite something? Did you not paraphrase well enough? Is your paper made up of someone else’s thoughts more than your own?

Visit the Writing Center in the Student Success Center, under the Resources tab in LoudCloud for tips on improving your paper and SI score.

Late Policy

The university’s policy on late assignments is 10% penalty PER DAY LATE. This also applies to late DQ replies.

Please communicate with me if you anticipate having to submit an assignment late. I am happy to be flexible, with advance notice. We may be able to work out an extension based on extenuating circumstances.

If you do not communicate with me before submitting an assignment late, the GCU late policy will be in effect.

I do not accept assignments that are two or more weeks late unless we have worked out an extension.

As per policy, no assignments are accepted after the last day of class. Any assignment submitted after midnight on the last day of class will not be accepted for grading.


Communication is so very important. There are multiple ways to communicate with me:

Questions to Instructor Forum: This is a great place to ask course content or assignment questions. If you have a question, there is a good chance one of your peers does as well. This is a public forum for the class.

Individual Forum: This is a private forum to ask me questions or send me messages. This will be checked at least once every 24 hours.

Important information for writing discussion questions and participation

Welcome to class

Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to

I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.

Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.

If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.

Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.

Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.

I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!

Hi Class,

Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.

Contact me if you have any questions.

Important information on Writing a Discussion Question

  • Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
  • There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
  • Include in-text citations in your response
  • Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
  • Follow APA-7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed

Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor

  • A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
  • Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
  • Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
  • Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
  • Follow APA 7th edition
  • Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
  • Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
  • Here are some helpful links
  • Student paper example
  • Citing Sources
  • The Writing Center is a great resource