Assignment: Cultural Nature of Human Development
OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
The Cultural Nature of Human Development
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Copyright © 2003 by Barbara Rogoff
Published by Oxford University Press, Inc., 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016
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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of Oxford University Press.
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Rogoff, Barbara. The cultural nature of human development / Barbara Rogoff.
p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-19-513133-9 1. Socialization. 2. Child development. 3. Cognition and culture. 4. Developmental psychology. I. Title. HM686 .R64 2003 305.231 — dc21 2002010393
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper
For Salem, Luisa, Valerie, and David
with appreciation for their companionship
and support all along the way.
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a c k n o w l e d g m e n t s
I deeply appreciate the wisdom, support, and challenges of Beatrice Whit- ing , Lois and Ben Paul, Mike Cole, Sylvia Scribner, Shep White, Jerry Kagan, Roy Malpass, Marta Navichoc Cotuc, Encarnación Perez, Pablo Cox Bixcul, and the children and parents of San Pedro, who opened my eyes to patterns of culture and how to think about them.
I am grateful to the insightful discussions and questions of Cathy An- gelillo, Krystal Bellinger, Rosy Chang, Pablo Chavajay, Erica Coy, Julie Hollo- way, Afsaneh Kalantari, Ed Lopez, Eugene Matusov, Rebeca Mejía Arauz, Behnosh Najafi, Emily Parodi, Ari Taub, Araceli Valle, and my graduate and undergraduate students who helped me develop these ideas. I especially appreciate the suggestions of Debi Bolter, Maricela Correa-Chávez, Sally Duensing, Shari Ellis, Ray Gibbs, Giyoo Hatano, Carol Lee, Elizabeth Ma- garian, Ruth Paradise, Keiko Takahashi, Catherine Cooper, Marty Chemers, and Wendy Williams and the valuable assistance of Karrie André and Cindy White. The editorial advice of Jonathan Cobb, Elizabeth Knoll, Joan Bossert, and several anonymous reviewers greatly improved the book. I greatly appreciate the donors and UCSC colleagues who created the UCSC Foundation chair in psychology that supports my work.
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Orienting Concepts and Ways of Understanding the Cultural Nature of Human Development
Looking for Cultural Regularities One Set of Patterns: Children’s Age-Grading and Segregation from Community Endeavors or Participation in Mature Activities
Other Patterns Orienting Concepts for Understanding Cultural Processes Moving Beyond Initial Assumptions
Beyond Ethnocentrism and Deficit Models Separating Value Judgments from Explanations
Diverse Goals of Development Ideas of Linear Cultural Evolution Moving Beyond Assumptions of a Single Goal of Human
Development Learning through Insider/Outsider Communication
Outsiders’ Position Insiders’ Position
Moving between Local and Global Understandings Revising Understanding in Derived Etic Approaches The Meaning of the “Same” Situation across Communities
Development as Transformation of Participation in Cultural Activities
A Logical Puzzle for Researchers An Example: “We always speak only of what we see” Researchers Questioning Assumptions
Concepts Relating Cultural and Individual Development Whiting and Whiting’s Psycho-Cultural Model Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological System Descendents Issues in Diagramming the Relation of Individual and Cultural Processes Sociocultural-Historical Theory Development as Transformation of Participation
in Sociocultural Activity
Individuals, Generations, and Dynamic Cultural Communities
Humans Are Biologically Cultural Prepared Learning by Infants and Young Children Where Do Gender Differences Come From?
Participation in Dynamic Cultural Communities Culture as a Categorical Property of Individuals versus a Process of Participation in Dynamically Related Cultural Communities
The Case of Middle-Class European American Cultural Communities
Conceiving of Communities across Generations
Child Rearing in Families and Communities
Family Composition and Governments Cultural Strategies for Child Survival and Care Infant-Caregiver Attachment
Maternal Attachment under Severe Conditions Infants’ Security of Attachment Attachment to Whom?
Family and Community Role Specializations Extended Families Differentiation of Caregiving, Companion, and Socializing Roles Sibling Caregiving and Peer Relations The Community as Caregiver
Children’s Participation in or Segregation from Mature Community Activities Access to Mature Community Activities
x C O N T E N T S
“Pitching in” from Early Childhood Excluding Children and Youth from Labor—
and from Productive Roles Adults “Preparing” Children or Children Joining Adults
Engaging in Groups or Dyads Infant Orientation: Face-to-Face with Caregiver versus Oriented to the Group Dyadic versus Group Prototypes for Social Relations Dyadic versus Multiparty Group Relations in Schooling
Developmental Transitions in Individuals’ Roles in Their Communities
Age as a Cultural Metric for Development Developmental Transitions Marking Change in Relation to the Community Rates of Passing Developmental “Milestones”
Age Timing of Learning Mental Testing Development as a Racetrack
According Infants a Unique Social Status Contrasting Treatment of Toddlers and Older Siblings Continuities and Discontinuities across Early Childhood
Responsible Roles in Childhood Onset of Responsibility at Age 5 to 7? Maturation and Experience
Adolescence as a Special Stage Initiation to Manhood and Womanhood Marriage and Parenthood as Markers of Adulthood Midlife in Relation to Maturation of the Next Generation Gender Roles
The Centrality of Child Rearing and Household Work in Gender Role Specializations
Sociohistorical Changes over Millennia in Mothers’ and Fathers’ Roles
Sociohistorical Changes in Recent Centuries in U.S. Mothers’ and Fathers’ Roles
Occupational Roles and Power of Men and Women Gender and Social Relations
Interdependence and Autonomy
Sleeping “Independently” Comfort from Bedtime Routines and Objects Social Relations in Cosleeping
C O N T E N T S xi
Independence versus Interdependence with Autonomy Individual Freedom of Choice in an Interdependent System Learning to Cooperate, with Freedom of Choice
Adult-Child Cooperation and Control Parental Discipline Teachers’ Discipline
Teasing and Shaming as Indirect Forms of Social Control Conceptions of Moral Relations
Moral Reasoning Morality as Individual Rights or Harmonious Social Order Learning the Local Moral Order Mandatory and Discretionary Concepts in Moral Codes
Cooperation and Competition Cooperative versus Competitive Behavior in Games Schooling and Competition
Thinking with the Tools and Institutions of Culture
Specific Contexts Rather Than General Ability: Piaget around the World
Schooling Practices in Cognitive Tests: Classification and Memory Classification Memory
Cultural Values of Intelligence and Maturity Familiarity with the Interpersonal Relations used in Tests Varying Definitions of Intelligence and Maturity
Generalizing Experience from One Situation to Another Learning to Fit Approaches Flexibly to Circumstances Cultural Tools for Thinking
Literacy Mathematics Other Conceptual Systems
Distributed Cognition in the Use of Cultural Tools for Thinking Cognition beyond the Skull Collaboration in Thinking across Time and Space Collaboration Hidden in the Design of Cognitive Tools and
Procedures An Example: Sociocultural Development in Writing Technologies and
Techniques Crediting the Cultural Tools and Practices We Think With
Important information for writing discussion questions and participation
Please read through the following information on writing a Discussion question response and participation posts.
Contact me if you have any questions.
Important information on Writing a Discussion Question
- Your response needs to be a minimum of 150 words (not including your list of references)
- There needs to be at least TWO references with ONE being a peer reviewed professional journal article.
- Include in-text citations in your response
- Do not include quotes—instead summarize and paraphrase the information
- Follow APA-7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
Participation –replies to your classmates or instructor
- A minimum of 6 responses per week, on at least 3 days of the week.
- Each response needs at least ONE reference with citations—best if it is a peer reviewed journal article
- Each response needs to be at least 75 words in length (does not include your list of references)
- Responses need to be substantive by bringing information to the discussion or further enhance the discussion. Responses of “I agree” or “great post” does not count for the word count.
- Follow APA 7th edition
- Points will be deducted if the above is not followed
- Remember to use and follow APA-7th edition for all weekly assignments, discussion questions, and participation points.
- Here are some helpful links
- Student paper example
- Citing Sources
- The Writing Center is a great resource
Welcome to class
Hello class and welcome to the class and I will be your instructor for this course. This is a -week course and requires a lot of time commitment, organization, and a high level of dedication. Please use the class syllabus to guide you through all the assignments required for the course. I have also attached the classroom policies to this announcement to know your expectations for this course. Please review this document carefully and ask me any questions if you do. You could email me at any time or send me a message via the “message” icon in halo if you need to contact me. I check my email regularly, so you should get a response within 24 hours. If you have not heard from me within 24 hours and need to contact me urgently, please send a follow up text to.
I strongly encourage that you do not wait until the very last minute to complete your assignments. Your assignments in weeks 4 and 5 require early planning as you would need to present a teaching plan and interview a community health provider. I advise you look at the requirements for these assignments at the beginning of the course and plan accordingly. I have posted the YouTube link that explains all the class assignments in detail. It is required that you watch this 32-minute video as the assignments from week 3 through 5 require that you follow the instructions to the letter to succeed. Failure to complete these assignments according to instructions might lead to a zero. After watching the video, please schedule a one-on-one with me to discuss your topic for your project by the second week of class. Use this link to schedule a 15-minute session. Please, call me at the time of your appointment on my number. Please note that I will NOT call you.
Please, be advised I do NOT accept any assignments by email. If you are having technical issues with uploading an assignment, contact the technical department and inform me of the issue. If you have any issues that would prevent you from getting your assignments to me by the deadline, please inform me to request a possible extension. Note that working fulltime or overtime is no excuse for late assignments. There is a 5%-point deduction for every day your assignment is late. This only applies to approved extensions. Late assignments will not be accepted.
If you think you would be needing accommodations due to any reasons, please contact the appropriate department to request accommodations.
Plagiarism is highly prohibited. Please ensure you are citing your sources correctly using APA 7th edition. All assignments including discussion posts should be formatted in APA with the appropriate spacing, font, margin, and indents. Any papers not well formatted would be returned back to you, hence, I advise you review APA formatting style. I have attached a sample paper in APA format and will also post sample discussion responses in subsequent announcements.
Your initial discussion post should be a minimum of 200 words and response posts should be a minimum of 150 words. Be advised that I grade based on quality and not necessarily the number of words you post. A minimum of TWO references should be used for your initial post. For your response post, you do not need references as personal experiences would count as response posts. If you however cite anything from the literature for your response post, it is required that you cite your reference. You should include a minimum of THREE references for papers in this course. Please note that references should be no more than 5 years old except recommended as a resource for the class. Furthermore, for each discussion board question, you need ONE initial substantive response and TWO substantive responses to either your classmates or your instructor for a total of THREE responses. There are TWO discussion questions each week, hence, you need a total minimum of SIX discussion posts for each week. I usually post a discussion question each week. You could also respond to these as it would count towards your required SIX discussion posts for the week.
I understand this is a lot of information to cover in 5 weeks, however, the Bible says in Philippians 4:13 that we can do all things through Christ that strengthens us. Even in times like this, we are encouraged by God’s word that we have that ability in us to succeed with His strength. I pray that each and every one of you receives strength for this course and life generally as we navigate through this pandemic that is shaking our world today. Relax and enjoy the course!