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Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Essay

Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Essay

 

Assessment tests and tools play an important role in the diagnosis of various diseases conditions in both adults and children. In adults, the role of protein-specific antigen test vis-à-vis the diagnosis of prostate cancer cannot be underestimated. According to statistics, prostate cancer afflicts more people from the age of 65 and above in the United States (Adhyam & Gupta, 2012). Further, genetics play a role in the prevalence of the disease as more African-Americans have been found with the condition compared to their white counterparts whereas family history also predisposes men to it. Given that prostate cancer can advance either slowly or rapidly, screening plays an important role in its management. The purpose of this paper therefore is to examine the prostate-specific antigen test from the provided list of tools.

Description of the Tool

            Prostate cancer is primarily screened through a blood-test referred to as the prostate-specific antigen-test (PSA). PSA is thus the biomarker for prostate cancer and is actually a protein produced by both malignant and non-malignant tissues in the affected region. The PSA test works through drawing of blood from a patient’s artery or vein, which will be sent to the laboratory for

Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Essay

Assessment Tools and Diagnostic Tests in Adults and Children Essay

examination (Adhyam & Gupta, 2012). If the level of the PSA in the blood sample is more than 4 mg/ml, then cancer could be diagnosed. However, the utilization of this PSA level is still shrouded in controversy since such results may also indicate the presence of other diseases such as inflamed or enlarged prostate. Thus, in order to truly conclude the presence of prostate cancer, additional tests such as biopsy, ultrasound, prostate exams and even the recent multiparametric-prostate-magnetic resonance imagining (MP-MRI) become necessary (Stamatakis & Pinto, 2014).

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PSA Test’s Validity, Reliability, Sensitivities, and Predictive Values

The validity of the PSA Test for screening cancer patients has always been a subject of discussion. Whereas the test is valid when it comes to cancer screening, particularly in early stages, its overall validity does not inspire confidence since its effect on mortality has not been determined (Leal, Welton, & Martin, 2018). Further, the PSA test’s reliability has also been called into question. Whereas the tool can detect abnormal levels of PSA in the blood, it does not offer an accurate diagnostic information concerning the state of one’s prostate. Thus, one needs to adopt the usage of other tests in order to achieve this objective. Also, it is not useful in screening early stages of this cancer as mentioned above without proving useful for late stage prostate cancer.

Moreover, the usage of PSA test has been characterized by diametrically different opinions from doctors and studies. For instance, while the tool has provided early detection of prostate cancer, its usefulness as regards saving lives has no clear cut answer. Also, the existence of the PSA levels of more than 4mg/ml has generated controversy in the scientific circles as it does not necessarily appear as a biomarker for prostate cancer (Laine, 2012).  Recommendations have also been made to use the upper range of values of normal when it comes to PSA for older adults. However, this only serves to reduce the sensitivity of the PSA tool for older adults’ prostate screening. Therefore, whereas the PSA cut off 4 ng/mL has expressed low sensitivities in studies, its specificity has increased as incidences.

see class rules
cite scholarly resources including peer-review journals and current practice guidelines
 Please, all bullets points, bold, red and highlighted area must be attended to.
 A clear purpose statement (The purpose of this paper is to…) is required in the introduction of all writings

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