NURS 6501 Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders 

Sample Answer for NURS 6501 Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders  Included After Question

NURS 6501 Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders 

Literature, cinema, and other cultural references have long examined differences between women and men. These observations extend well beyond obvious and even inconspicuous traits to include cultural, behavioral, and biological differences that can impact pathophysiological process and, ultimately, health. 

Understanding these differences in traits and their impact on pathophysiology can better equip acute care nurses to communicate to patients of both sexes. Furthermore, APRNs who are able to communicate these differences can better guide care to patients, whatever their gender. 

This week, you examine fundamental concepts of women’s and men’s health disorders. You also explore common infections and hematologic disorders, and you apply the key terms and concepts that help communicate the pathophysiological nature of these issues to patients.  

NURS 6501 Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders 
NURS 6501 Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders

Learning Objectives 

Students will: 

  • Analyze concepts and principles of pathophysiology across the life span 
  • Analyze processes related to women’s and men’s health, infections, and hematologic disorders 
  • Identify racial/ethnic variables that may impact physiological functioning 
  • Evaluate the impact of patient characteristics on disorders and altered physiology  

 

Learning Resources 

 

Required Readings (click to expand/reduce)  

 

McCance, K. L. & Huether, S. E. (2019). Pathophysiology: The biologic basis for disease in adults and children (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby/Elsevier. 

  •  Chapter 24: Structure and Function of the Reproductive Systems (stop at Tests of reproductive function); Summary Review 
  • Chapter 25: Alterations of the Female Reproductive System (stop at Organ prolapse); pp. 787–788 (start at Impaired fertility) (stop at Disorders of the female breast); Summary Review 
  •  Chapter 26: Alterations of the Male Reproductive System (stop at Hormone levels); Summary Review 
  •  Chapter 27: Sexually Transmitted Infections, including Summary Review 
  •   Chapter 28: Structure and Function of the Hematological System (stop at Clinical evaluation of the hematological system); Summary Review 
  • Chapter 29: Alterations of Erythrocytes, Platelets, and Hemostatic Function, including Summary Review 
  • Chapter 30: Alterations of Leukocyte and Lymphoid Function, including Summary Review 

 

Low, N. & Broutet N. J. (2017). Sexually transmitted infections – Research priorities for new challenges. PLoS Medicine, (12), e1002481 

 

 

Kessler, C. M. (2019). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura [LK1] (ITP). Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/202158-overview 

 

Nagalia, S. (2019). Pernicious anemia[LK1] . Retrieved from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/204930-overview#a3 

 

Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I. [LK1] (2019). Anemia at older age: Etiologies, clinical implications and management. Blood Journal, 131(5). Retrieved from http://www.bloodjournal.org/content/131/5/505?sso-checked=true 

Credit Line: Anemia at older age: Etiologies, clinical implications and management by Stauder, R., Valent, P., & Theurl, I., in Blood Journal, Vol. 131/Issue 5. Copyright 2019 by American Society of Hematology. Reprinted by permission of American Society of Hematology via the Copyright Clearance Center. 

 

Document: NURS 6501 Final Exam Review (PDF document)  

 

Note: Use this document to help you as you review for your Final Exam in Week 11. 

 

 

Required Media (click to expand/reduce)  

 

Module 7 Overview with Dr. Tara Harris  

Dr. Tara Harris reviews the structure of Module 7 as well as the expectations for the module. Consider how you will manage your time as you review your media and Learning Resources throughout the module to prepare for your Knowledge Check and your Assignment. (3m) 

 

Khan Academy. (2019a). Chronic disease vs iron deficiency anemia[LK1] . Retrieved from https://www.khanacademy.org/science/health-and-medicine/hematologic-system-diseases-2/iron-deficiency-anemia-and-anemia-of-chronic-disease/v/chronic-disease-vs-iron-deficiency-anemia 

Note: The approximate length of the media program is 5 minutes. 

 

Online Media from Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children 

In addition to this week’s media, it is highly recommended that you access and view the resources included with the course text, Pathophysiology: The Biologic Basis for Disease in Adults and Children. Focus on the videos and animations in Chapters 24, 26, 28, and 30 that relate to the reproductive and hematological systems. Refer to the Learning Resources in Week 1 for registration instructions. If you have already registered, you may access the resources at https://evolve.elsevier.com/ 

 

 

A Sample Answer For the Assignment: NURS 6501 Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders 

Title: NURS 6501 Week 10: Concepts of Women’s and Men’s Health, Infections, and Hematologic Disorders 

Case Study Analysis  

Genitourinary disorders affect a significant proportion of the population, resulting in low quality of life and increased disease burden. Nurses and other healthcare providers adopt evidence-based interventions to promote optimum outcomes. Therefore, this paper examines a case study involving a 14-year-old female that is brought to the urgent care with complaints of bruises and gum bleeding. The purpose of this assignment is to examine topics that include factors affecting fertility, rise of inflammatory markers in STDs/PID, anemia and different types, and the need for splenectomy after ITP.  

The Factors that Affect Fertility (STDs) 

The assigned case study does not relate to sexually transmitted infections (STDs). STDs affect fertility. Untreated STDs ascend the reproductive tract to cause tubal damage, inflammation, and scarring, which cause infertility. STDs caused by pathogenic bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis cause morbidities such as pelvic inflammatory disease and tubal factor that are associated with infertility. In addition, pathogenesis such as Trichomonas vaginalis and Mycoplasma genitalium play a role in causing tubal damage and potentiating the likelihood of patients developing infertility(Smolarczyk et al., 2021). The interaction between these causes, patient factors, co-infections, and vaginal microbiome affects fertility.  

Why Inflammatory Marker Rise in STD/PID 

STD or pelvic inflammatory disease are associated with a significant rise in inflammatory markers. The rise in the inflammatory markers is attributable to the presence of bacteria and other organisms that cause these infections. The presence of these organisms stimulates the immune system to release inflammatory markers such as interleukins 1, 66, and 8 and cytokines(Mokotedi et al., 2019). The role of these inflammatory markers is to respond to the infection by attempting to eliminate the infectious agents from the body.  

Why Prostatitis and Infection Happens 

STDs can also cause prostatitis and other secondary infections. Patients affected by prostatitis experience symptoms such as difficult or painful urination because of inflamed prostate gland. Microorganisms such as bacteria associated with STDs and PID may access the prostate gland, resulting in their multiplication and inflammation of the gland. In addition, systemic reaction may arise from STDs and PID. The spread of the bacterial infection through blood and the lymphatic tissue my cause widespread systemic reaction in a patient. Besides, acute prostatitis due to bacterial infections may also contribute to systemic infections(Bielecki et al., 2020). Therefore, this explains the correlation between STDs, PID, prostatitis, and systemic reaction.  

Why a Patient would Need a Splenectomy After a Diagnosis of ITP 

Splenectomy is considered an effective treatment for patients diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The spleen plays the crucial role of platelet clearance and production of autoantibodies. It also acts as the niche where immune cells promote antiplatelet antibody formation. The spleen also stores long-lived plasma cells that have anti-platelet antibody producing properties. These functions make the spleen the primary organ involved in ITP pathogenesis. Splenectomy, which entails the surgical removal of the spleen eliminates autoantibody production and platelet clearance site, which improves ITP symptoms. Splenectomy also reduces the risk of relapses of ITP and improved response to medical therapies adopted for ITP(Al-Samkari& Kuter, 2020; Mageau et al., 2022). Patients also benefit from the stabilization in the platelet count in most of the patients who undergo the treatment.  

Anemia and Different Kinds of Anemia 

Anemia is a condition characterized by the low hemoglobin level below the expected level for a patient’s age and gender. Anemia exists in different types. One of them is microcytic anemia. In microcytic anemia, the red blood cells are smaller than the normal red blood cells because of the inadequate hemoglobin. Normocytic anemia is the other type where there are inadequate red blood cells to meet the body’s needs. Macrocytic anemia is the other type anemia. Macrocytic anemia has features that include abnormally large red blood cells. It arises from defects in the ability of the bone marrow to produce red blood cells. The other sub-types of anemia include iron-deficiency, sideroblastic, thalassemia, and hemolytic anemias(Guo et al., 2019; Tvedten, 2022).  

Conclusion 

STDs cause infertility. Inflammatory markers rise in PID and STDs. Splenectomy is an effective treatment for ITP. Anemia exists in different types that affect the treatment approaches. ss 

 

References 

Al-Samkari, H., & Kuter, D. J. (2020). Immune Thrombocytopenia in Adults: Modern Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment. Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, 46(3), 275–288. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1700512 

Bielecki, R., Ostaszewska-Puchalska, I., Zdrodowska-Stefanow, B., Baltaziak, M., Skawrońska, M., &Sokołowska, M. (2020). The presence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in men with chronic prostatitis. Central European Journal of Urology, 73(3), 362–368. https://doi.org/10.5173/ceju.2020.0040 

Guo, W., Zhou, Q., Jia, Y., & Xu, J. (2019). Increased Levels of Glycated Hemoglobin A1c and Iron Deficiency Anemia: A Review. Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research, 25, 8371–8378. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.916719 

Mageau, A., Terriou, L., Ebbo, M., Souchaud-Debouverie, O., Orvain, C., Graveleau, J., Lega, J.-C., Ruivard, M., Viallard, J.-F., Cheze, S., Dossier, A., Bonnotte, B., Perlat, A., Gobert, D., Costedoat-Chalumeau, N., Jeandel, P.-Y., Dernoncourt, A., Michel, M., Godeau, B., &Comont, T. (2022). Splenectomy for primary immune thrombocytopenia revisited in the era of thrombopoietin receptor agonists: New insights for an old treatment. American Journal of Hematology, 97(1), 10–17. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26378 

Mokotedi, L., Millen, A. M. E., Mogane, C., Gomes, M., Woodiwiss, A. J., Norton, G. R., & Michel, F. S. (2019). Associations of inflammatory markers and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 with endothelial dysfunction in collagen-induced arthritis. European Journal of Pharmacology, 865, 172786. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2019.172786 

Smolarczyk, K., Mlynarczyk-Bonikowska, B., Rudnicka, E., Szukiewicz, D., Meczekalski, B., Smolarczyk, R., & Pieta, W. (2021). The Impact of Selected Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Diseases on Pregnancy and Female Fertility. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(4), Article 4. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042170 

Tvedten, H. (2022). Classification and Laboratory Evaluation of Anemia. In Schalm’s Veterinary Hematology (pp. 198–208). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119500537.ch25